Overview of Afghanistan

  • Afghanistan’s legislature, called the National Assembly, is comprised of two houses: the House of Elders with 102 seats — 34 elected by district councils for three-year terms, 34 by provincial councils for four-year terms, 34 are appointed by the president for five-year terms — and the House of People with 249 elected seats.
  • Afghanistan’s poverty profile is further shaped by marked disparities between rural and urban areas, sustained population growth, extremely low levels of female participation in the work force, and the overwhelming prevalence of vulnerable forms of employment in informal and low-productivity jobs.
  • Afghanistan is completely landlocked—the nearest coast lies along the Arabian Sea, about 300 miles (480 km) to the south—and, because of both its isolation and its volatile political history, it remains one of the most poorly surveyed areas of the world.
  • Afghanistan has begun counter-narcotics programs, including the promotion of alternative livelihoods, public information campaigns, targeted eradication policies, interdiction of drug shipments, as well as law enforcement and justice reform programs.
  • Afghanistan continued to be, according to UNAMA, “one of the deadliest countries in the world for children”, with both pro-government and anti-government forces responsible for more than 700 child casualties each.
  • Afghanistan, approximately the size of Texas, is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west.
  • Afghanistan has never had a national railway network and while there are a number of spur lines from neighboring countries, most notably to Mazar-e Sharif, there are no passenger trains as of 2020.
  • Afghanistan will go down as another lesson in the folly of leaders whose egos simply do not allow them to think they are involved in a failure, so they contrive to paint it as a success.
  • Afghanistan still faces issues with Taliban insurgents in a few regions of the country, although a democratic government was installed following the U.S.-led intervention in 2001.
  • Afghanistan’s national airline, Ariana, operates domestic and international routes, including flights to New Delhi, Islamabad, Dubai, Moscow, Istanbul, Tehran, and Frankfurt.
  • Continent

    During his reign (1880-1901), the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan through the demarcation of the Durand Line.European InfluenceDuring the 19th century, collision between the expanding British Empire in the subcontinent and czarist Russia significantly influenced Afghanistan in what was termed “The Great Game.” British concern over Russian advances in Central Asia and growing influence in Persia culminated in two Anglo-Afghan wars.The British retained effective control over Kabul’s foreign affairs.The first (1839-42) resulted not only in the destruction of a British army, but is remembered today as an example of the ferocity of Afghan resistance to foreign rule.The second Anglo-Afghan war (1878-80) was sparked by Amir Sher Ali’s refusal to accept a British mission in Kabul.This conflict brought Amir Abdur Rahman to the Afghan throne.


    77% of the population is involved in farming, herding, or both.Afghanistan has a large rural population with only 7 million, or 23%, of the population living in urban areas.Afghanistan is the 42nd most populous country in the world with a population of 38,041,754 as of 2019, according to the World Bank.The annual population increase is around 2.4%.The median age in Afghanistan is only 17.8 years old, largely due to the steep population increase, but also as a result of the relatively low life expectancy due to the ongoing conflicts in the country.


    The country is split east to west by the Hindu Kush mountain range, rising in the east to heights of 24,000 ft (7,315 m).With the exception of the southwest, most of the country is covered by high snow-capped mountains and is traversed by deep valleys.

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    As the US plans its Afghan troop withdrawal, what was it all for?

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    What about the human cost?

    Since the war against the Taliban began in 2001, US forces have suffered more than 2,300 deaths and around 20,660 soldiers injured in action.

    Why can’t the US end the war in Afghanistan?

    Largely forgotten by Americans, this $50bn per year campaign could literally become a ‘forever war’.

    What forces did the US send?

    The US invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 to oust the Taliban, whom they said were harbouring Osama Bin Laden and other al-Qaeda figures linked to the 9/11 attacks.

    How will US troop withdrawal affect Afghanistan?

    President Joe Biden will withdraw all US troops from Afghanistan by the 20th anniversary of the September 11 attacks.

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    What is happening in Afghanistan?

    The crisis in Afghanistan is characterized by upsurges in conflict, recurring natural disasters, widespread internal displacement, very low health indicators, extreme poverty, and an overburdened and underfunded health care system.In 2019, presidential elections and peace talks between the US and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), better known as the Taliban, led to renewed violence, which had a severe impact on people’s access to health care.It is estimated that around one-third of the population does not have a functional health center within two hours of their home.

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    History of Afghanistan

  • In 2014, at Sopko’s direction, SIGAR departed from its usual mission of performing audits and launched a side venture.
  • In 1271, the explorer Marco Polo visited the site where it was found.
  • In 1271, the explorer Marco Polo visited the site where it was
  • In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani re-established Afghanistan and expanded it to include much of Pakistan as well as northeastern Iran and the Western parts of India.
  • In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani re-established an independent Afghanistan and expanded it to include what is now Pakistan as well as northeastern Iran and the Western parts of India.
  • In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founder of what is known today as Afghanistan, established his rule.
  • In 1839, Dost Mohammad attempted to form an alliance with Russia after the British turned him away.
  • In 1893 Britain established an unofficial border, the Durand Line, separating Afghanistan from British India, and London granted full independence in 1919.
  • In 1919, Afghanistan established independence as an emirate until a kingdom was proclaimed by Amanullah Khan.
  • In 1928, the most expensive dog breeds in 2020 the Royal Canadian Mounted police ( RCMP ) dog of!
  • In 1933, Mohammed Zahir Shah succeeded to the throne and ruled the country until 1973, when the constitutional monarchy was overthrown in a coup, and the country became a republic.
  • In 1936, 2, 20 and 100 afghani notes were added.
  • In 1940, the Afghan Hound Club of America was admitted to AKC membership and held its first specialty show.
  • In 1952, aluminium 25 pul and nickel-clad steel 50 pul were introduced, followed by aluminium 2 and 5 afghani in 1958.
  • In 1961 nickel-clad steel 1, 2 and 5 afghani were minted; the 1 and 2 afghani coins show years of SH 1340 and the 5 Afghani coin shows the year AH 1381.[14] In 1973, the new Republic of Afghanistan issued brass-clad-steel 25 pul, copper-clad steel 50 pul and cupro-nickel-clad steel 5 afghani coins.[citation needed] These were followed, between 1978 and 1980, by issues of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan consisting of aluminium-bronze 25 and 50 pul and cupro-nickel 1, 2 and 5 afghani.[citation needed] A number of commemorative coins were also issued by the Islamic State of Afghanistan between 1995 and 2001.
  • In 1963 Zahir Shah took full control of Afghanistan at the age of 49.
  • In 1964, King Zahir Shah promulgated a liberal constitution providing for a two-chamber legislature to which the king appointed one-third of the deputies.
  • In 1967, the PDPA split into two major rival factions: the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal.
  • In 1973, when Zahir was in Italy for surgery, Daoud staged a coup d’état.
  • In 1978 the murder of a prominent member of the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan was blamed on the government.
  • In 1978, the Soviet Union invaded.
  • In 1979, during the Soviet Afghan War, it was the spot of the Bala Hissar uprising, when members of the Afghanistan Liberation Organization (opponents of Afghanistan’s pro-Russian regime) staged riots to overthrow the government.
  • In 1986 Karmal resigned, and was replaced by Mohammad Najibullah.
  • In 1988, the Governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the United States and Soviet Union serving as guarantors, signed an agreement settling the major differences between them.
  • In 1989, the Soviet military pulled out of Afghanistan, after a decade-long occupation that had made the country a front line in the Cold War.
  • In 1993, 5000 and 10,000 afghani notes were introduced.
  • In 1994, the Taliban developed enough strength to capture the city of Kandahar from a local warlord and proceeded to expand its control throughout Afghanistan, occupying Kabul in September 1996.
  • In 1996, the Taliban gained prominence.
  • In 2001, after the Taliban refused to extradite al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden following his group’s Sept.
  • In 2001, as part of a drive against relics of Afghanistan’s pre-Islamic past, the Taliban destroyed two Buddha statues carved into cliff faces outside of the city of Bamiyan.
  • In 2001, there were fewer than 900,000 children, almost all boys, in school.
  • In 2002, the afghani was redenominated, and it received a new ISO 4217 code AFN.
  • In 2003 Afghan-born American novelist Khaled Hosseini introduced the world to Afghanistan through his New York Times best-selling novel The Kite Runner.
  • In 2003, after the United States shifted its military efforts to fighting the war in Iraq, attacks on American-led forces intensified as the Taliban and al-Qaeda began to regroup.
  • In 2003, Afghanistan’s national football team embarked upon their first ever FIFA qualifying campaign which ended in two losses to Turkmenistan and an unsuccessful bid for the 2008 FIFA World Cup.
  • In 2004 and 2005, American troop levels in Afghanistan gradually increased to nearly 18,000 from a low of 10,000.
  • In 2004, Afghanistan’s GDP grew 17%, and in 2005 Afghanistan’s GDP grew approximately 10%.
  • In 2005 Afghanistan and its South Asia neighbors held the first annual Regional Economic Cooperation Conference (RECC) promoting intra-regional relations and economic cooperation.
  • In 2005, Afghanistan and the US signed a strategic partnership agreement committing both nations to a long-term relationship.
  • In 2005, an Afghan Hound named Snuppy became the first cloned dog in history.
  • In 2006, ISAF assumes command of the international military forces in eastern Afghanistan from the U.S.-led coalition, and also becomes more involved in intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan.
  • In 2008, during visits to Afghanistan as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he “found confusion at all levels about our strategy and objectives,” Robert M.
  • In 2009, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health reported that fully two-thirds of Afghans suffer from mental health problems.
  • In 2009, U.S.
  • In 2012, Afghanistan and the US signed another more important strategic partnership agreement.
  • In 2012, the two countries signed another more important strategic partnership agreement in which Afghanistan was designated a major non-NATO ally (MNNA).
  • In 2013 ANIM conducted their first U.S.
  • In 2018, an estimated 150,000 internally displaced people arrived in the city of Herat, having fled their conflict- and drought-affected villages.
  • In 2018, an estimated 20,384 civilians were reported killed and injured by the use of explosive weapons in populated areas.
  • In 2019 a male Belgian Malinois Conan was used during the Barisha raid to chase Abu Bakr al Baghdadi.
  • In 2019, Transparency International ranked Afghanistan 173/168 on the International Corruptions Perceptions Index; its score is 16/100 (0-9 is considered highly corrupt while 91-100 is considered very clean).
  • In 2020, frustrated by the Taliban’s tenacity, he struck his deal with the group and began another drawdown. 
  • In 2020, one U.S.
  • In 559-330 BCE the Achaemenid Dynasty built an empire which at its peak spanned three continents: from Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia in the South, to Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) in the West, to the Balkans and Black Sea in the North, to present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan in the East.
  • In the 1930s, Afghanistan embarked on a modest economic development program.
  • In the 1950s, the U.S.
  • In the 1980s, a united worldwide effort to eradicate polio from the planet began.