Overview of Austria

  • Austrian pan-Germans which include Georg Ritter von Schönerer and his followers agitated against the “multi-national” Austro-Hungarian Empire and advocated for German Austria to join the German Empire.[35] Although many Austrians shared the same views, a lot of them still showed allegiance to the Habsburg Monarchy and hoped for Austria to remain an independent country.[36] Although not as radical as Schönerer and his followers, populists which include Karl Lueger used anti-semitism and pan-Germanism as a form of populism to further their own political purposes.[37]
  • Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, China (PRC), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands (European Netherlands), Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, USA, Uruguay, Venezuela
  • Austrian financial regulators and policymakers are generally receptive to cryptoassets, new technologies and fintech.The FMA has established a dedicated fintech contact point to assist with new business models requiring authorisation under Austrian financial services regulation.True to the government’s motto ‘advice instead of punishment’, the Ministry of Finance has finally implemented a dedicated regulatory sandbox programme in line with international best practice.
  • Austria continued the alliance with France (cemented in 1770 with the marriage of Maria Theresa’s daughter Archduchess Maria Antonia to the Dauphin), but also facing a dangerous situation in Central Europe, faced with the alliance of Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia.
  • Austria • Belgium • Bulgaria • Cyprus • Czech Republic • Denmark • Estonia • Finland • France • Germany • Greece • Hungary • Ireland • Italy • Latvia • Lithuania • Luxembourg • Malta • Netherlands • Poland • Portugal • Romania • Slovakia • Slovenia • Spain • Sweden • United Kingdom
  • Austria recoiled in horror at the execution of Francis’ aunt Maria Antonia in 1793 (despite futile attempts at rescue and even negotiation for release), leading to a wave of repression to fend off such dangerous sentiments influencing Austrian politics.
  • Austria has long relied heavily on migrant labor to staff the LTC sector and policies allowing the emergency importation of additional migrant workers to provide care both in facilities and at home may have helped maintain adequate staffing levels.
  • Austria is a land of lakes, many of them a legacy of the Pleistocene Epoch (i.e., about 2,600,000 to about 11,700 years ago), during which glacial erosion scooped out mountain lakes in the central Alpine district, notably around the Salzkammergut.
  • Austria under National Socialism describes the period of Austrian history from 12 March 1938 when Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany (the event is commonly known as Anschluss) until the end of World War II in 1945.
  • Austria has gone a step further, making FFP2 masks mandatory in indoor public spaces and sending out free packs of these masks to all residents aged over 65 and to low income households.
  • Continent

    Austria has a temperate continental climate.Day-time temperatures in July and August are around 25°C (77°F), but can often reach 35°C (95°F).In the Alpine region large temperature fluctuations occur all year round and nights are chilly even in high summer.Summers last from early June to mid-September and
    can be hot in some years and rainy in others.The area around Vienna often experiences strong easterly winds.The northern Alps are generally a lot wetter than the rest of the country.The South East (Styria and Carinthia) is dry and sunny.Winters are cold in the lowlands and very harsh in the Alpine region with temperatures often dropping below -10°C (14°F).Winters last from December to March (longer at higher altitudes).


    Mostly German-speaking parts of western Hungary was awarded to Austria as the new state of Burgenland in 1921, with the exception of the city of Sopron and adjacent territories, whose population decided in a referendum (which is sometimes considered by Austrians to have been rigged) to remain with Hungary.On 20 October 1920, a plebiscite in part of the Austrian state of Carinthia was held in which the population chose to remain a part of Austria, rejecting the territorial claims of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the state.The area had been discussed as the site of a Slavic corridor uniting Czechoslovakia to Yugoslavia.This made Austria the only defeated country to acquire additional territory as part of border adjustments.

    What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

    What Are Austrians Like?

    Find out more about eating with Austrians, drinking with Austrians, and what “na no na net” means.

    How much does Austria pay and receive?

    How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means.The larger your country’s economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.The EU budget doesn’t aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.

    Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

    It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

    AstraZeneca vaccine: Where does the world stand on suspensions?

    Several countries have paused or limited use of the shot amid concern over reports of rare blood clots in recipients.


    Our Ladies and Gentlemen are the key to the best our destination has to offer.Allow our carefully curated collection of local attractions and experiences help you customize the perfect vacation.

    Why Study Abroad in Austria with AIFS?

    Few countries could be more exciting to study in than Austria, a peaceful democracy with cultural and economic ties in both eastern and western Europe.With the Alps at your doorstep for outdoor fun and the works of Mozart, Haydn and Strauss in the background, spend a summer, semester or academic year studying abroad with AIFS in Austria and explore the history, culture and natural beauty of this central European country.

    History of Austria

  • In 1796, Napoleon invaded the papal states.
  • In the 1850s, the papal territories contained a population of some three million people.
  • (In 2015, Austria, which has no nuclear power plants, unsuccessfully launched a similar action against the EC over its approval of the UK's Hinkley Point C project.
  • In 1060, Conrad, a descendant of Siegfried, took the title count of Luxembourg.
  • In 1186 the Georgenberg Pact bequeathed Austria’s southern neighbour, the Duchy of Styria to Austria upon the death of the childless Duke of Styria, Ottokar IV, which occurred in 1192.
  • In 1252, Ottokar, king of Bohemia, gained possession, only to lose the territories to Rudolf of Hapsburg in 1278.
  • In 1284 it came under Serbian rule, and in 1402 Stephen Lazarević made it the capital of Serbia.
  • In 1335 Albert II inherited the Duchy of Carinthia and the March of Carniola from the then rulers, the House of Gorizia.
  • In 1363, the County of Tyrol was acquired by Rudolph IV from Margaret of Tyrol.
  • In 1379 Albert III retained Austria proper, ruling till 1395.
  • In 1389, the forces of Ottoman Sultan Murad I defeated Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic's Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo.
  • In 1410, the Poles and Lithuanians defeated the powerful Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg.
  • In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg.
  • In 1443, the city was taken by the troops of Burgundy.
  • In 1467, Mathias and his Black Army fought against Moldavia.
  • In 1475, Stephen III ("the Great") of Moldavia scored a decisive victory against the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.
  • In 1508, Venice occupied the city in response to calls from pro-Venetian residents of Pordenone, but this occupation was not well received.
  • In 1526, after the Battle of Mohács, in which Hungary suffered a catastrophic defeat against the Ottoman Turks, Croatia severed its relationship with Hungary and its parliament (Sabor) voted to form a new personal union with the Habsburg Monarchy.
  • In 1541, Transylvania became a multi-ethnic principality under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire following the Battle of Mohács.
  • In 1545 the long running Council of Trent began its work of reform and a Counter-Reformation on the borders of the Habsburg domains.
  • In 1618, the kingdom revolted against its Catholic Habsburg administrators, sparking the tumultuous Thirty Years’ War.
  • In 1683, the Ottoman forces were beaten back from Vienna a second time and eventually, in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699), pushed back beyond Belgrade.
  • In 1689 it was burned to the ground by Austrian forces to eradicate a cholera epidemic, after which it declined until a revival in the 19th century with the building of the Belgrade–Thessaloníki railway.
  • In 1699, Transylvania became a territory of the Habsburg's Austrian empire, following the Austrian victory over the Turks.
  • In 1700, Charles II (1661–1700) died, ending the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and a new conflict with France arose.
  • In 1713, after the War of the Spanish Succession, Milan, Naples, and Sardinia were handed over to the Hapsburgs of Austria, which lost some of its Italian territories in 1735.
  • In 1741 Empress Maria Theresa of Austria fled to Bratislava when Vienna was threatened by French and Bavarian troops.
  • In 1745, following the reign of the Bavarian Elector as Emperor Charles VII, Maria Theresa’s husband Francis of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was elected Emperor, restoring control of that position to the Habsburgs (or, rather, to the new composite house of Habsburg-Lorraine),[47] Francis holding the titular crown until his death in 1765, but his empress consort Maria Theresa carrying out the executive functions.
  • In 1778, the French became involved in the American War of Independence, against Britain, hoping to recover lost colonies, but only managed to increased an already heavy national debt.
  • In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie (joy), bucuros (joyful), or a se bucura (to be joyful), while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name to be derived from ‘Bukovie’, a beech forest.[27] In English, the city’s name was formerly rendered as Bukarest.
  • In 1789, a popular revolt broke out in the Austrian Netherlands in reaction against the emperor's centralizing policies.
  • In 1795, six years after the beginning of the French Revolution, Revolutionary France conquered and annexed Luxembourg, making it part of the département of the Forêts in 1795.
  • In 1795, the National Convention adopted a constitution outlining a republic with executive power vested in a five-man Directory and legislative power divided between two houses, indirectly elected ensuring control by citizens with substantial property.
  • In 1796, the French Directory planned a two-pronged campaign in Germany to force the Austrians to make peace, with a secondary thrust planned into Italy.
  • In 1804, Napoleon established the French Empire and crowned himself emperor, and in 1805, he went to war, defeating Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
  • In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was also ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included.
  • In 1805, the French victory over an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition.
  • In 1806, having held both titles in the interim, he resigned the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which then ceased to exist.
  • In 1806, when Emperor Francis II of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, Austria became the Austrian Empire, and was also part of the German Confederation until the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.
  • In 1812, Napoleon began his great onslaught on Russia and took Moscow, but his army was repulsed and nearly annihilated in the winter of that year.
  • In 1815, the Congress of Vienna awarded the entire territory to the Habsburgs.
  • In 1823, the Emperor of Austria made the five Rothschild brothers barons.
  • In 1830, Belgium rebelled against Dutch rule and declared independence, which was approved by Europe at the London Conference of 1830?1831.
  • In 1831, the Great Powers (France, Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria) stepped in and decided that Luxembourg belonged to William I and formed part of the German Confederation.
  • In 1839, the Treaty of London ceded the western part of Luxembourg to Belgium.
  • In 1844, Darwin started a book that would explain his theory, but by 1858 he still did not have it completed.
  • In 1848 one of those tensions erupted, when the liberal nationalist opposition and some elements to the left of it called for a more centralised German state, assembling a parliament and constituent assembly in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt.
  • In 1848, a mass political and popular movement for a United Slovenia emerged as part of the Spring of Nations movement within the Austrian Empire.
  • In 1848, a mass political and popular movement for the United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija) emerged as part of the Spring of Nations movement within the Austrian Empire.
  • In 1848, Hungary revolted against its Austrian Habsburg masters, prompting Slovak patriots to launch their own counter-revolt against the rebellious Hungarians.
  • In 1855, the Indian patriot Benito Jurez began a series of reforms, including the disestablishment of the Catholic Church, which owned vast property.
  • In 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples and turned them over to Sardinia.
  • In 1861 it was again divided into Upper and Lower Austria.
  • In 1864, the Prussians under Bismarck and the Austrians made war on Denmark as an initial step in the unification of Germany.
  • In 1866 Liechtenstein changed its alignment from the by then-dissolved German Confederation to Austria-Hungary until the end of World War I, when the economic devastation and the breakdown of the dual monarchy caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland.
  • In 1866, it was conquered by the Kingdom of Italy.
  • In 1866, King Victor Emmanuel II annexed Venice.
  • In 1866/1867 Prussia and her allies left the German Confederation, which led to the confederation being dissolved and the formation of a new alliance, called the North German Confederation.
  • In 1866-1871 (after decisive wars with Austria and France), Prussia led by Bismarck united Germany as a nation state called the German Empire (Deutsches Reich, or Kaiserreich).
  • In 1867, Austria formed a dual monarchy with Hungary: the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).
  • In 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary.
  • In 1870, shortly after France abandoned it (because they were preoccupied in a war against Prussia that would lead to German unification by 1871), Italy’s capital was moved to Rome.
  • In 1878, Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had been cut off from the rest of the Ottoman Empire by the creation of new states in the Balkans following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and the resulting Congress of Berlin (June–July 1878).
  • In 1885 some of the Jewish leaders and journalists who had participated in the struggle for emancipation, among them Moses Gaster and Elias Schwarzfeld, were expelled from Romania.
  • In 1887, as secretary to papal secretary of state Rampolla, Della Chiesa (as Benedict then was) was responsible for promulgating Pope Leo XIII’s intransigent rejection of any reconciliation with the Italian government that fell short of the full restoration of the papal territories.
  • In 1890 Rev.
  • In 1890, Italy – a late-comer to the “Scramble for Africa” – conquered Eritrea and Somalia, which became colonies; despite these successes, the economy had significantly worsened and millions of Italians, mainly from the rural South, were forced to emigrate.
  • In 1891 Rev.
  • In 1891, Steiner earned a doctorate in philosophy at the University of Rostock, in northern Germany.
  • In 1896 Francesco Crispi, Prime Minister for the second time, gave order to invade Ethiopia: the badly-led expedition however was massacred at the battle of Adwa.
  • In 1902 Slovaks, along with other Slavic groups and Romanians, successfully opposed the erection of a statue in PUBLIC SQUARE of Louis Kossuth, who was considered an enemy of the non-Magyar nationalities in Austria-Hungary.
  • In 1905 Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde, a Dutch gynecologist, showed that women only ovulate once per menstrual cycle.[12] In the 1920s, Kyusaku Ogino, a Japanese gynecologist, and Hermann Knaus, from Austria, working independently, each made the discovery that ovulation occurs about fourteen days before the next menstrual period.[13] Ogino used his discovery to develop a formula for use in aiding infertile women to time intercourse to achieve pregnancy.
  • In 1905, after other issues had been added to the dispute, church and state were separated by law.
  • In 1905, Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde, a Dutch gynecologist, showed that women only ovulate once per menstrual cycle.[17] In the 1920s, Kyusaku Ogino, a Japanese gynecologist, and Hermann Knaus, from Austria, working independently, each made the discovery that ovulation occurs about fourteen days before the next menstrual period.[18] Ogino used his discovery to develop a formula for use in aiding infertile women to time intercourse to achieve pregnancy.
  • In 1905, they merged to create a major textile company that produced continuously until 1982, with the exception of an interruption following World War I.
  • In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed the province, leading to the Bosnian Crisis, an international dispute which barely failed to precipitate a world war immediately, and was an important step in the buildup of international tensions during the years leading up to the First World War.
  • In 1909 lawyer, Walter Riehl joined the party and he became leader in 1918.
  • In 1909 St.
  • In 1909, von Bethmann-Hollweg had replaced von Bülow as chancellor of Germany; Bethmann was overthrown (1917) by Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and Chief of Staff Erich Ludendorff, who together controlled Germany until late 1918.
  • In 1910 the first specifically antisemitic party, the National Democratic Party, was founded, under the leadership of the university professors A.C.
  • In 1911 and 1914, Slovaks again rallied other groups to protest visits of officials from Austria-Hungary.
  • In 1911, the first industrially activated charcoal was made in Austria.
  • In 1911-12, the Austrian researcher Viktor Hess sent instruments up in balloons.
  • In 1912 a breed club was formed for the dog in Munich called the Klub für Bayrische Gebirgsschweißhunde and later it spread to Germany’s neighbors Hungary and Austria.
  • In 1912, the “Klub für Bayrische Gebirgsschweißhunde”, (Club for Bavarian Mountain hound), was founded in Munich.
  • In 1912, the Club for Bavarian Mountain Hound (Klub für Bayrische Gebirgsschweißhunde) was founded in Munich.
  • In 1913, during the second Balkan War, Albania was occupied by the Serbs.
  • In 1914 William, prince of Wied, became King but was soon expelled by his premier.
  • In 1914, King Carol died, ending the country’s alliance with Germany and Austria and Romania joined the Allied forces in World War I.
  • In 1915 Italy took over this role, running supplies unsuccessfully and irregularly across the line Shengjin-Bojana-Lake Skadar, an unsecured route because of constant attacks by Albanian irregulars organised by Austrian agents.
  • In 1916 it was occupied by the Austrians, in 1941 by the Italians, and in 1943 by the Germans.
  • In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Allies (Entente) of World War I side, after the Entente countries agreed to recognize Romanian rights over Transylvania, which at that time was part of Austria-Hungary.
  • In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Entente side.
  • In 1918 it was incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, where it had no formal status of its own.
  • In 1918, a short-lived State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (carved out of south Slavic parts of Austria-Hungary) joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later renamed Yugoslavia in 1929.
  • In 1918, at the end of World War I, with the breakup of the multi-ethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire, and with the abolition of the Habsburg monarchy, there were three major political groups competing with one another in the young republic of Austria: the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SDAP), Christian Social Party (CS), and the nationalist Great German Union (Großdeutsche Vereinigung), which became the Greater German People’s Party (Großdeutsche Volkspartei, or GVP) in 1920.
  • In 1919 by the Treaty of Saint-Germain and in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon most of territories claimed were assigned to Romania.
  • In 1919 the Weimar Constitution postulated the inclusion of Deutsch-Österreich (the German-speaking parts of Austria), but the Western Allies objected to this.
  • In 1919, Ignace Paderewski, the famous pianist and patriot, became the first prime minister.
  • In 1919, Liechtenstein and Switzerland signed a treaty under which Switzerland assumed responsibility for Liechtenstein's diplomacy and defense.
  • In 1920 in Tirol the first Heimwehr was put in duty under the command of Richard Steidle with the help of the Bavarian organisation Escherich.
  • In 1920 the Greater German People’s Party (Großdeutsche Volkspartei, GDVP) was founded from the bulk of liberal and national groups and became the junior partner of the CS.[71]
  • In 1920, after the pullout of the last of the Romanian occupation forces, the Kingdom of Hungary was restored.
  • In 1920, after the World War, a referendum vote was eventually held in Schleswig-Holstein to settle the still unsolved internal conflicts and the northern part of Schleswig returned to Denmark once again while southern Schleswig and Holstein went to Germany, settling the Danish-German borders we know today.
  • In 1920, after World War I, Arad became part of Romania.
  • In 1920, in the Carinthian Plebiscite, the majority of Carinthian Slovenes voted to remain in Austria.
  • In 1920, the country fell into a period of civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists violently purging the nation of communists, leftist intellectuals, and others whom they felt threatened by, especially Jews.
  • In 1920, the modern Constitution of Austria was enacted, but from 1920 onwards Austrian politics were characterized by intense and sometimes violent conflict between left and right.
  • In 1921, the country adopted a hereditary constitutional monarchy type of government.
  • In 1923 members of the Monarchist “Ostara” shot a worker dead and the Social Democrats founded their own protective organization.
  • In 1923 Riehl’s party had about 23,000 members and was a marginal factor in Austrian politics.
  • In 1924 there was another split and Karl Schulz led a splinter group.
  • In 1926 Richard Suchenwirth founded the Austrian branch of Hitler’s German National Socialist party in Vienna.
  • In 1926, Pilsudski seized complete power in a coup and ruled dictatorially until his death on May 12, 1935.
  • In 1928, Austrian Pinscher was recognized as a breed for the first time.
  • In 1929 Mussolini formed a pact with the Holy See, resulting in the rebirth of an independent state of the Vatican for the Catholic Church in the heart of Rome.
  • In 1929 that federation was formally constituted as Yugoslavia.
  • In 1938, Austria had a Jewish population of about 192,000, representing almost 4 percent of the total population.
  • In 1938, Austrian-born Adolf Hitler annexed Austria to the German Reich with the Anschluss, which was supported by a large majority of the Austrian people.[1][2] Ten years after the Second World War Austria again became an independent republic as the Second Austrian Republic in 1955.
  • In 1938, Béla Imrédy became prime minister.
  • In 1938, ORTHODOX Albanians in Cleveland founded the Society of St.
  • In 1940, after losing part of its territory (Eastern Moldavia and northern Bukovina) to the USSR as a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Romania joined the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR.
  • In 1942 the name was changed to the “Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue” (“Alpine and Danubian Gaue”), thus eradicating any links with a special Austrian past.
  • In 1943, Leo Kanner chronicled the medical histories of the 11 children who were the first to be diagnosed with autism.
  • in 1944, and by 1952 a church hall was under construction, including a temporary iconastas.
  • In 1944, the Allies (notably America, Britain and Canada) landed in Normandy while Hitler continued to believe that landing to be a feint with the main thrust coming via Calais, and the Soviets advanced steadily, culminating with the capture of Berlin in April 1945, the surrender of May 1945 (variously celebrated as May 8 or May 9) and the capture of the last Nazi holdouts in Schleswig Holstein later that month.
  • In 1945, Austria was divided into zones of occupation like Germany.
  • In 1945, several Germans gathered some of the few remaining Leonbergers and re-established the breed.
  • In 1946, Austrian chemist Franz Greiter introduced what may have been the first effective modern sunscreen.
  • In 1949 a Dr.
  • In 1955 Liechtenstein, described itself (paywall) as a country “where citizens dwell virtually tax-free, and where similar freedom awaits foreign corporations.” (The top tax rate at that time was 1.4%.) Foreign corporations with headquarters in Liechtenstein could enjoy “only minimal taxation”—as well as dreamy mountain views.
  • In 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation.
  • In 1959 it was recognized by the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale).
  • In 1963, the FCI accepted the Slovensky Kopov as a hunting dog of scenthound type.
  • In 1973 the dog was finally recognised by the international dog association FCI.
  • In 1978, the Netherlands qualified for the World Cup in Argentina.
  • In 1979 Julie Smith and Janet Edmonds( now known as J.
  • In 1981 Ms.
  • In 1984, the International Hovawart Federation (IHF) was established, bringing together now 14 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden, Hungary, Great Britain, Italy) as well as Canada and the USA.
  • In 1986, the election of a former Wehrmacht intelligence officer, Kurt Waldheim, as a federal president put Austria on the verge of international isolation.
  • In 1991 it became the capital of the newly independent Republic of Macedonia, which changed its name to the Republic of North Macedonia in 2019.
  • In 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia joined with several other former Soviet republics to form a loose coalition, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
  • In 1995, Austria joined the European Union.
  • In 1996, it took in about $11 billion of imports in machinery and transport equipment, fuels, intermediate manufactured goods, and miscellaneous manufactured goods.
  • In 1996, it took in about $11 billion of imports in machinery and
    transport equipment, fuels, intermediate manufactured goods, and
    miscellaneous manufactured goods.
  • In 1998, these categories comprised 43 percent and 37 percent of all commodity exports, respectively.
  • In 2000 there were 185,000 migrants living in The Gambia.
  • In 2000, Slovakia became the thirtieth member of the OECD.
  • In 2000, Slovakia received an invitation to join the OECD as its 30th member.
  • In 2000, the

    labor force

    included 22,891 people, of which an astounding number of 13,847 were
    foreigners, mostly

    guest workers

    ; 8,231 people commuted from neighboring Austrian and Swiss towns to
    work daily.

  • In 2002, disputes within the FPÖ resulting from losses in state elections caused the resignation of several FPÖ government members and a collapse of the government.
  • In 2004, Hyundai invested $1.5 billion in its first European assembly plant; Ford constructed a $400 million gearbox production plant in the same year.
  • In 2005 in the same area, a double infant burial site was discovered at Krems-Wachtberg, dating from Gravettian culture (27,000 years old), the oldest burial ground found in Austria to date.[10][11]
  • In 2005 it was revealed that Jewish labourers from the Strasshof concentration camp, provided by the SS, had worked on estates in Austria owned by Liechtenstein’s Princely House.[21]
  • In 2005 the net migration rate was estimated as 1.27 migrants per 1,000 population, down from 13.3 per 1,000 in 1990.
  • In 2005, Switzerland agreed to join the Schengen treaty and Dublin Convention by popular vote.
  • In 2005,[116] 2007[117] and 2015[118] harmonization at the European Union level toward a minimum purchase age of 18 was discussed, but not agreed.
  • In 2006, the United Kennel Club officially recognized the Transylvanian Hound.
  • In 2014, 38.5% of the quantity EU soft drinks consumed was sold in reuse bottles, 32.9% was in glass reuse bottles, and 5.6% was in REF-PET bottles (Amarasinghe et al., 2015).
  • In 2016, 54% of Liechtenstein’s workforce commuted from countries like Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, according to Liechtenstein’s Foundation for Public Policy and Constitutional Law.
  • In 2018, persistent and often large-scale protests followed the unexplained death—and presumed murder—that March of David Dragičević, a 21-year-old Banja Luka resident whose case touched on broader concerns about policing and the rule of law in the RS.
  • In 2018, the Czech Republic exported 9.0 TWh (net) to Slovakia, 10.8 TWh (net) to Austria, and imported 2.7 TWh (net) from Germany and 3.2 TWh (net) from Poland.
  • In 2018, under the Power Africa program, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and ECREEE started a partnership to enhance renewable energy development in West Africa.
  • In 2019 Austria objected to the start-up of Mochocve 3&4 in Slovakia.)
  • In 2019, more than 23.000 SDS implants were sold in the DACH region (Germany/Austria/Switzerland).
  • In 2019, RS police continued to ban and disperse “Justice for David” protests, and dozens of past participants were charged with disturbing public order; Dragičević’s father fled to Austria, and his mother, who resides there, was facing trial in the RS on protest-related charges at year’s end.
  • In 2019, the first regulator-approved security token offerings (Blockpit and Hydrominer), and the first regulator-approved initial exchange offering (IEO) (by crypto exchange Bitpanda) took place.The Bitpanda IEO was particularly considered successful, with approximately €44 million being raised by August 2019.
  • In 2022 it will be possible to apply for the ETIAS for Austria.
  • In the 1820s and 1840s, the interest in Slovene language and folklore grew enormously, with numerous philologists collecting folk songs and advancing the first steps towards a standardization of the language.
  • In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini, a brilliant liberal nationalist, organized the Risorgimento (Resurrection), which laid the foundation for Italian unity.
  • In the 1870’s  Baron Karg-Bebenburg, Reichenhall crossed the Hanoverian hound with smaller Alpine hound breeds or Bracken, to develop the Bavarian Mountain Scent Hound.
  • In the 1870s, Baron Karg-Bebenburg Reichenhall crossed the Hanoverian Scenthound with smaller Alpine Hound breeds or Bracken, to develop the Bavarian Mountain Scent Hound.
  • In the 1870s, Magyars closed down Slovak high schools and the national institute for the promotion of Slovak culture (Matica slovenská) as Magyarization was forced on Slovaks in all aspects of life.
  • In the 1920s historians with a sense of national mission urgently rewrote the history of Hungary to emphasize nationalism and deemphasize Austrian influences.[96] By the 1930s, political history was in decline and an effort was made to introduce social history in the style of the French Annales School.
  • In the 1950s, breeders in other European countries also became aware of the German breed.
  • In the 1950s, the country’s recently founded industries experienced dramatic growth, with the numbers of employees sometimes increasing fivefold.
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, further Hovawart associations were formed in Austria, Britain, France, Italy and the USA.
  • In the 1990s, more clubs emerged in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia.
  • In the 2000s, the Jasenovac Memorial Site started working on a list of all the inmates who were killed or died at the camp, using existing name-by-name lists, documents, confirmations of deaths and verifications by relatives.
  • On 1 August 2008, the IAEA approved the India Safeguards Agreement[49] and on 6 September 2008, India was granted the waiver at the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) meeting held in Vienna, Austria.
  • On 1 May 1934, the Dollfuss cabinet approved a new constitution that abolished freedom of the press, established one party system and created a total state monopoly on employer-employee relations.
  • On 1 October 2006 the SPÖ won a head on head elections and negotiated a grand coalition with the ÖVP.
  • On 1 September 1992, the first Austrian Holocaust memorial serviceman started working in the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.
  • On 4 March 1933, there occurred an irregularity in the parliamentary voting procedures.
  • On 8 June, the Emperor and Empress were crowned King and Queen of Hungary in a ceremony whose pomp and splendour seemed out of keeping with Austria’s recent military and political humiliation and the extent of financial reparations.
  • On 9 April 1809, an Austrian force of 170,000 men attacked Bavaria.[16]
  • On 9 June 1793 the French Revolutionary troops opposed the Austrians just outside Arlon.
  • On 9 March 1938 he announced that he wanted to hold a consultative referendum on the independence of Austria on the following Sunday.