Overview of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia except the Black Sea coast, in southern Dagestan, the Eastern Anatolia Region and all over Iran  from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, alongside cultural, administrative, court literature, and most importantly official language (along with Azerbaijani) of all these regions, namely Persian. From the early 16th century up to the course of the 19th century, these regions and territories were all ruled by the Safdedicateds, Afsharids and Qajars until the cession of Transcaucasia proper and Dagestan by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire per the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan and the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay.
Azerbaijani evolved from the Eastern branch of Oghuz Turkic (“Western Turkic”) which spread to the Caucasus, in Eastern Europe, and northern Iran, in Western Asia, during the medieval Turkic migrations. Persian and Arabic influenced the language, but Arabic words were mainly transmitted through the intermediary of literary Persian. Azerbaijani is, perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Persian and other Iranian languages have exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax, and vocabulary, less in morphology.
Azerbaijani (/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːni/) or Azeri (/æˈzɛəri, ɑː-, ə-/), also referred to as Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan where the North Azerbaijani variety is spoken, and in the Azerbaijan region of Iran, where the South Azerbaijani variety is spoken. Although there is a very high degree of mutual intelligibility between both forms of Azerbaijani, there are significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax and sources of loanwords.
Azerbaijan’s quaint villages and gorgeous countryside are home to beautiful old palaces and impressive religious structures, but the biggest highlight for many visitors is the overwhelming hospitality of the Azeri people and their fascinating cultural traditions – from carpet-making to mugham chants – practiced the same way they have been for hundreds, and a fewtimes thousands, of years.
Azerbaijan accused Armenia of firing rockets at the country’s second largest city, Ganja, and at a hydroelectric station, suggesting an effort to destroy civilian infrastructure, risking an escalation to direct conflict between the countries outside the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Azerbaijan also captured around one-third of Nagorny Karabakh itself, including the town of Shusha, forcing more than 30,000 Armenians to flee from their homes, while Armenian settlers also had to leave the Armenian-occupied districts outside Nagorny Karabakh at short notice.2
Azerbaijan is a country in the South Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Southwest Asia and Southeastern Europe. In total, Azerbaijan has 77 cities (including 12 Federal-level cities), 64 smaller district-class cities, and one special legal status city.
Azerbaijan, Kenyan and Honduran children’s groups honoured for their leadership
NEW YORK, 26 February 2010 – Three children’s groups from Azerbaijan, Honduras and Kenya have been recognized for their outstanding work in promoting children’s rights.
Azerbaijani customs used to request payment of a deposit of several thousand US dollars for foreign cars, however, as of 2020, restrictive customs rules on importing older cars and requiring large deposits are a thing of the past.
Azerbaijan is one of the world’s oldest oil producing nations with proven crude oil reserves of 7 billion barrels and natural gas reserves of 1300 billion cubic meters (source: Azerbaijan EITI 2014 Report).
“Kelaghayi” is a woman’s headscarf and is made of thin silk threads with specific colours tied to specific social occasions.A variety of crafts were developed in Sheki, like blacksmithing, weapons manufacturing, silk weaving, decorative and artistic shabaka, jewelery items, silk and artistic embroideries.Among the products manufactured in Sheki that are unique to the Silk Roads, are “tekelduz” – embroidery featuring coloured thread silk tambour on dark velvet made with a special needle called a “garmach”.Another famous handicraft product are ‘mujrus’, small wooden trunk boxes.Azerbaijan’s location on the Silk Roads promoted the growth of the handicraft industry in the country and by 1834 there were more than 400 crafts shops lining the streets and bazaars of Sheki.Carpet making is also a family-run business tradition, transferred orally and through practice.Carpet weaving is closely connected with the daily life and customs of the communities involved, its role reflected in the meaning of the designs and their applications.Carpet-weaving is another popular traditional craft in Azerbaijan.Celebration of Novruz Bayram (the regional New Year) on the occasion of the 1st day of spring is a key tradition that has been transmitted along the Silk Roads.From a cultural and historic point of view, Azerbaijan has close ties with the history of the Silk Roads and was strongly affected by its development.Mujrus were used by women to store jewellery or embroidery thread.Novruz is associated with various local traditions and numerous tales and legends.Novruz promotes the values of peace and solidarity between generations and within families, as well as reconciliation and neighbourliness, thus contributing to friendship among peoples across various communities.One point of reference for this strong link between the Silk Roads and Azerbaijan is the poem “Seven Beauties” by the great poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141-1209, Ganja, Azerbaijan), in which he allegorically describes the countries lying along these great Roads.Rooted in traditions found along the Silk Roads, the art of Kelaghayi is concentrated in two places in Azerbaijan – Sheki and Basgal.Since ancient times small “mujru” boxes have remained the major attribute in the dowry of brides from this region.Since ancient times, Azerbaijan has played an important role as a melting pot of civilizations, serving as a venue and major transfer point of different cultural traditions and customs.Songs and dances are common to almost every region, as are semi-sacred family or public meals.The art of making Kelaghayi is transmitted exclusively through non-formal apprenticeships and is primarily an intra-family occupation.The carpets are also used by young girls who sit on them while telling fortunes and singing traditional songs during Novruz.The celebration travelled widely, from Central Asia to Turkey by passing through, the Indian sub-continent, Afghanistan, Iran, Azerbaijan and other countries.The intangible heritage of Azerbaijan, diverse and rich, continues to be transmitted from generation to generation.The patterns of Azerbaijani carpets are characteristic of the various regions of the country.The traditional practice of making and wearing headscarves is an expression of cultural identity, religious traditions, and serves as a symbol of social cohesion, reinforcing the role of women and strengthening the cultural unity of Azerbaijani society.There are special carpets woven specifically for medical treatment, wedding ceremonies, the birth of a child, mourning rituals and prayer.These small boxes are made of local hardwoods, such as chestnut and walnut, and are decorated with hammered copper.This embroidery method is also used across Central Asia and the Middle East, however the “tekelduz” made in Sheki are distinguished by their design and embroidery technique.Thus, the carpet is widely used for home decor and furniture.
Ethnic Azeris are also a significant share of Iran’s population, although over time the influence of Russian and Persian culture produced some differences between the Azeris of Azerbaijan and the Azeris of Iran.In particular, almost two centuries of Russian and Soviet rule have brought a very liberal attitude towards Islam among the Azeris of Azerbaijan, who nevertheless remain mostly Shi’ite Muslims.The majority of the population (over 92%) is composed of Azeris, who share a culture very similar to Turkey.
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What can I do to avoid bed bugs?
Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.
It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.
Can diplomacy strengthen the peace?
Even if the November 9 cease-fire holds, it is unlikely to be followed by further rounds of serious diplomacy.In both Armenia and Azerbaijan, domestic political considerations will almost surely block any effort to pursue a final settlement.
Nagorno-Karabakh: How did Azerbaijan triumph over Armenia?
Azerbaijan bet on sophisticated, pricey weapons, while Armenia relied on old Russian-made arms and obsolete strategy.
History of Azerbaijan
In 1723 Peter I (the Great) captured Baku, but it was returned to Persia in 1735; Russia captured it finally in 1806.
In 1853, Azerbaijani became a compulsory language for students of all backgrounds in all of Transcaucasia with the exception of the Tiflis Governorate.
In 1875 Akinchi (Əkinçi / اکينچی) (“The Ploughman”) became the first Azerbaijani newspaper to be published in the Russian Empire.
In 1917, after the October Revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune, led by the veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan.
In 1917, Russia was officially proclaimed the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, which in 1922 was united with the Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Transcaucasian republics to form the see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
In 1920 Baku became capital of the Azerbaijan republic.
In 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by the Soviet Bolshevik forces from Russia, and until 1936 Tbilisi functioned first as the capital city of the Transcaucasian SFSR (which included Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and afterward until 1991 as the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1922, Azerbaijan joined the USSR as a member of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Republic.
In 1929–1938 a Latin alphabet was in use for North Azerbaijani (although it was different from the one used now), from 1938 to 1991 the Cyrillic script was used, and in 1991 the current Latin alphabet was introduced, although the transition to it has been rather slow. For instance, until an Aliyev decree on the matter in 2001, newspapers would routinely write headlines in the Latin script, leaving the stories in Cyrillic; the transition also resulted in some misrendering of İ as Ì.
In 1936, after a reorganization, Armenia became a separate constituent republic of the USSR.
In 1941, at the start of hostilities, the USSR invaded Northern Iran, where Azerbaijanis had held an ethnic majority since Persian times.
In 1980 the city housed the first state-sanctioned rock festival in the USSR.
In 1988, Armenia became involved in a territorial dispute with Azerbaijan over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.
In 1990, some 98 percent of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union.
In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union.
In 1991, the Armenian military illegally occupied Nagorno-Karabakh, also known as Upper Karabakh, internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory, and seven adjacent regions.
In 1992, Abulfaz Elchibey, leader of the Popular Front party, was elected president, but he was ousted by the parliament a year later, after a military mutiny.
In 1992-1994, tensions boiled over and exploded into large-scale military action for control over the enclave and seven adjacent territories after Azerbaijan lost control of them.
In 1999, Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova), which was formed in 1997 (making it GUUAM), but pulled out of the organisation in 2005.
In 1999, Uzbekistan joined the GUAM alliance (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova), which was formed in 1997 (making it GUUAM), but pulled out of the organization in 2005.
In 2002, Kazakhstan became a member of UEFA for better development of its football, but Uzbekistan chose to remain in the AFC.
In 2003, Heydar Aliyev stepped down from the presidency at the age of 80.
In 2007 the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Zaha Hadid, was opened. Baku also has many museums such as Baku Museum of Modern Art and Azerbaijan State Museum of History, most notably featuring historical artifacts and art.
In 2007, while a guest lecturer at the University of Minnesota, Dr.
In 2008, diplomatic efforts to normalize relations with Turkey were initiated but were later suspended due to intense internal pressure on both sides, and disagreements between the two countries.
In 2009 the Azərbaycan Milli Bankı (National Bank of Azerbaijan) was renamed the Azərbaycan Respublikasının Mərkəzi Bankı (Central Bank of Azerbaijan).
In 2010, the 1-manat banknote was issued with the new name of the issuing bank, in 2012 a 5-manat banknote was issued with the new name of the issuing bank and in 2017 a 100-manat banknote dated 2013 was issued with the new name of the issuing bank.
In 2011 Azerbaijan’s Ministry of Finance announced it was considering to issue notes of 2 and 3 manat as well as notes with values larger than 100 manat. In February 2013 the Central Bank of Azerbaijan announced it would not introduce larger denomination notes until at least 2014.
In 2011, this suit was also dismissed.
In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), Arab Americans have family origins in each of the 22 member states of the Arab League. Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world, separate from the “white” classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909.
In 2016 Azerbaijan introduced a new single-entry eVisa for citizens of the following countries:
In 2018 total generating capacity was 79 GWe.
In 2018, Azerbaijani language and literature programs are offered in the United States at several universities, including Indiana University, UCLA, and University of Texas at Austin. The vast majority, if not all Azerbaijani language courses teach North Azerbaijani written in the Latin script and not South Azerbaijani written in the Perso-Arabic script.
In 2018, massive protests against corruption led to the election of a reform-minded government headed by Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan with the support of a sizeable parliamentary majority.
In 2018, Ophelia, a 32-year-old mother of 2 who lives in Azerbaijan, realized something was very wrong.
In 2019 its old core was declared a Unesco World Heritage Site.
On 4 September, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe ended infringement proceedings against Azerbaijan, after the Supreme Court of Azerbaijan acquitted Ilgar Mammadov and Rasul Jafarov, two of the applicants the ECtHR had ruled were wrongfully imprisoned for their criticism of the government.
On 9 March 2017, the EITI Board decided that Azerbaijan did not meet the corrective actions as layed out in October at the previous Board meeting.