Overview of Colombia

  • Colombia’s geographic and climatic variations have combined to produce relatively well-defined “ethnocultural” groups among alternative regions of the country: the Costeño from the Caribbean coast; the Caucano in the Cauca region and the Pacific coast; the Antioqueño in Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, and Valle del Cauca departments; the Tolimense in Tolima and Huila departments; the Cundiboyacense in the interior departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá in the Cordillera Oriental; the Santandereano in Norte de Santander and Santander departments; and the Llanero in the eastern plains.
  • Colombia, famous for its literary figures, has produced three outstanding novelists widely read outside the country: Jorge Isaacs (1837–95), whose most famous work, María, is a novel in the Romantic tradition; José Eustacio Rivera (1880–1929), whose outstanding novel, La Vorágine (The Vortex), written after World War I, is a drama of social rebellion; and Gabriel García Márquez (b.1928), a Nobel Prize winner in 1982, who is best known for Cien años de soledad (One Hundred Years of Solitude ).
  • Colombia also produced sizable amounts of common clay, kaolin, dolomite, gypsum, limestone, hydrated lime and quicklime, magnesite, nitrogen (content of ammonia), rock and marine salt, sand, gravel, marble, feldspar, phosphate rock, and sodium compounds (sodium carbonate), as well as small quantities of sulfur (native, from ore), asbestos, bauxite, bentonite, calcite, diatomite, fluorite, mercury, mica, talc, soapstone, prophyllite, dolomite, and zinc.
  • Colombia has a land size of 1,138,910 km2 (439,740 sq mi) and it’s the 25th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru).[4] Colombia’s population is not evenly distributed, and most of the people live in the mountainous western portion of the country as well as along the northern coastline; the highest number live in or near the capital city of Bogotá.
  • Colombians customarily describe their country in terms of the climatic zones: the area under 900 meters (2,953 ft) in elevation is called the hot zone (tierra caliente), elevations between 900 and 1,980 meters (2,953 and 6,496 ft) are the temperate zone (tierra templada), and elevations from 1,980 meters (6,496 ft) to about 3,500 meters (11,483 ft) constitute the cold zone (tierra fría).
  • Colombia usually classifies its geography into five natural regions, from the Andes mountain range, a region shared with Ecuador, Venezuela; the Pacific Ocean coastal region, shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean Sea coastal region, shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains), shared with Venezuela; to the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador.
  • Colombia’s specific procedures mandate that minors (under 18), regardless of nationality, who are traveling alone, with one parent or with a third party must present a copy of their birth certificate and written authorization from the absent parent(s) or legal guardian, specifically granting permission to travel alone, with one parent or with a third party.
  • Colombia’s main trade union confederation, the CUT, has again accused Iván Duque’s government of exploiting the pandemic to channel resources to banks and corporations while failing to provide for workers and smaller businesses, even though the latter ‘generate 80 per cent of the country’s employment’.
  • Colombia has a diversity of other agriculture products, including bananas for export (2,061,992 metric tons), rice (1,818,726 metric tons), potatoes (1,476,869 metric tons), sugarcane (1,061,272 metric tons), cassava (970,951 metric tons), oilseed (378,481 metric tons), and other products like cotton, cocoa beans, and tobacco.
  • Colombia then sent later a delegation of prominent politicians and political figures; General Rafael Reyes, Pedro Nel Ospina, Jorge Holguín and Lucas Caballero who met with the same representative for Panama and Carlos Antonio Mendoza, Nicanor de Obarrio y Antonio Zubieta, without reaching any consensus.
  • Continent

    It comprises the areas outside the continental territories of Colombia and includes the San Andrés y Providencia Department in the Caribbean sea and the Malpelo and Gorgona islands in the Pacific Ocean.Its subregions include other groups of islands:
    The Insular Region is considered by some as a geopolitical region of Colombia.


    FARC withdrew into the jungle and began attacks against the power grid, telecommunications facilities, and other aspects of Colombia’s infrastructure in an attempt to disrupt the lives of the largely urban population while avoiding a direct conflict with the military.In February 2002, after the FARC hijacked an airplane and kidnapped a senator, Pastrana ordered the military to attack rebel positions and reassert control over the rebel zone.


    As a result, popular disenchantment with Pastrana increased.In November 1998, Pastrana ceded an area the size of Switzerland in south-central Colombia to the FARC’s control as a goodwill gesture, but the rebels negotiated with the government only fitfully while continuing to mount attacks and expand their coca production, essentially establishing a parallel government in the region under their control.Negotiations with the rebels in 2000 and 2001 were marred by rebel attacks, kidnappings, and fighting between rebels and paramilitaries for control of coca-growing areas in Colombia.

    What can you do in Colombia?

    Each of the country’s regions offers a different rhythm so you can do what you like most.With adventure tourism, numerous cultural activities and excellent gastronomy, we have everything to make your trip an unforgettable experience.

    Coronavirus: what is the impact in Colombia?

    With coronavirus crisis moving so fast, we will be posting updates on the situation in Colombia, particularly in its impact on issues of human rights, peace and trade unionism in the country.You can return to this page for regular information on the situation in the country.

    Where is Colombia?

    Colombia (officially, Republic of Colombia) is a country located in the northwestern part of South America.It is geographically positioned in the Northern and Western hemispheres of the Earth.The Equator passes through the southern edge of the country; therefore, Colombia also partially lies in the Southern hemisphere.Colombia is bordered by Panama to the northwest; by Ecuador and Peru to the south; by Venezuela to the east, and by Brazil to the southeast.It is also bounded by the Caribbean Sea in the north and by the Pacific Ocean in the west.Colombia shares its maritime borders with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.

    In Pictures: Is avocado boom to blame for bee deaths in Colombia?

    Apiarists in Colombia suspect pesticides used in commercial avocado and citrus farming is killing the bees.

    Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

    It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

    What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

    What about the domestic routes?

    Aerocivil Colombia also authorized several domestic carriers to launch new routes within the country.

    Why travel to Colombia?

    The imagination and creativity in the design of this house defies belief.Amongst the most amazing I have seen in half a century of travelling.The 10’000 COP entrance fee is trivial for the eye-feast you get.

    History of Colombia

  • (In 2001 Nicaragua filed a claim in the International Court of Justice regarding these islands.) Colombia also holds the uninhabited Caribbean islands of Quita Sueño Bank, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank, to which the United States renounced all rights under the Treaty of Quita Sueño, ratified by the US Senate in July 1981; Nicaragua also disputes this claim.
  • In 1509, authority was granted to Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa to colonize the territories between the west side of the Gulf of Uraba to Cabo Gracias a Dios in present-day Honduras.
  • In 1526, settlers founded Santa Marta, the oldest Spanish city still in existence in Colombia.
  • In 1536, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and a company of 900 men traveled up the Magdalena River in search of the legendary land of El Dorado.
  • In 1538 Dominican friar Vicente de Valverde became first bishop of Cuzco, a diocese that extended from modern Colombia to Chile.
  • In 1548, Gonzalo Pizarro was defeated by the forces of a subsequent royal emissary and executed for treason.
  • In 1549, the area was a Spanish colony with the capital at Santa Fe de Bogot á.
  • In 1549, the area was a Spanish colony with the capital at Santa Fe de Bogotá.
  • In 1671, the privateer Henry Morgan, licensed by the English government, sacked and burned the city of Panama – the second most important city in the Spanish New World at the time.
  • In 1717 the viceroyalty of New Granada (northern South America) was created in response to other Europeans trying to take Spanish territory in the Caribbean region.
  • In 1717, Bogotá became the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, which included what are now Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.
  • In 1739, New Granada retained independent status as a Viceroyalty separate from Peru.
  • In 1781, 20,000 Indians and mestizos attempted to march on the capital in what became known as the Comuneros revolt, but the revolt was crushed and its leaders were executed.
  • In 1783, José Celestino Mutis, Barón de Humbolt, and Francisco José de Caldas came to New Granada, the area now known as Colombia, to start the Expedición Botánica.
  • In 1809 a group of citizens overthrew the Royal Audiencia, but Spanish rule was restored within 3 months.
  • In 1819, Ecuador joined Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama in a confederacy known as Greater Colombia.
  • In 1819, New Granada finally achieved freedom from Spain.
  • In 1819, when the famous leader Simón Bolívar addressed the Congress of Angostura, he called for the establishment of universal popular education, claiming that the Catholic religious orders had not created anything that resembled a proper system.
  • In 1820 Guayaquil again declared independence, and soon after Simon Bolivar sent Antonio Jose de Sucre into Ecuador to lead a decisive campaign against the Spaniards.
  • In 1821 Panama became free from Spanish rule but chose to be part of Colombia.
  • In 1821, some years after the decline of Spanish colonial power in the Western Hemisphere, the territory became part of Greater Colombia.
  • In 1821, the Congress of Cúcuta devised a constitution for this new country.
  • In 1821, when Central America revolted against Spain, Panama joined Colombia, which had already declared its independence.
  • In 1822, at the Battle of Pichincha, Spanish royalists were defeated by Antonio Jose de Sucre Alcala, and Quito became known as the Department of the South, which was part of the confederacy known as the Republic of Colombia, a confederation with Venezuela and Colombia.
  • In 1822, the United States became one of the first countries to recognize the new republic and to establish a resident diplomatic mission.
  • In 1826, it was the seat of the Pan American Conference called by the liberator, Simón Bolívar.
  • In 1828 Peru fought a war against Gran Colombia over control of Jaén and Maynas territory, called the Gran Colombia-Peru War.
  • In 1830 Ecuador became an independent republic, gained its name, and began a tumultuous history racked with ethnic clashes and dominated by a white, European–oriented oligarchy.
  • In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.
  • In 1830, when this union collapsed, the traditional name Quito was dropped in favor of La República del Ecuador, “The Republic of the Equator.”
  • In 1831 the country became the State of New Granada.
  • In 1832 the provinces of Vélez and Barbacoas were created, and in 1835 those of Buenaventura and Pasto were added.
  • In 1837, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was also created, but it was dissolved two years later due to Chilean military intervention.
  • In 1840–41, a short-lived independent republic was established under Tomás de Herrera.
  • In 1843 those of Cauca, Mompós and Túquerres were created.
  • In 1846, the US and New Granada signed the Bidlack Mallarino Treaty, granting the US right of way across the Isthmus, and most significantly the power to intervene militarily, ensuring neutrality of the Isthmus, and guaranteeing New Granada sovereignty.[4]:83
  • In 1863, the liberals framed another constitution that changed the name of the state to Estados Unidos de Colombia (United States of Colombia) and advanced the regionalism of the country.
  • In 1870, 60,155 students were enrolled, and by 1874, the number had grown to more than 84,000 (Bushnell).
  • In 1870, when the Congress made primary education in Colombia free and compulsory, the national government offered 4 percent of its budget (200,000 pesos) to education, with 20 percent of that sum going to universities.
  • In 1903 independence from Colombia was declared there, and the city was made the national Panamanian capital.
  • In 1903 Panama won independence from Colombia with the help of the United States, which wanted to construct a canal linking the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans.
  • In 1903, the new country of Panama promptly granted the United States control over a swath of territory known as the Canal Zone.
  • In 1903, the United States and Colombia signed the Hay–Herrán Treaty to finalize the construction of the Panama Canal but the process[clarification needed] was not completed because the Congress of Colombia rejected the measure (which the Colombian government had proposed) on August 12, 1903.
  • In 1927, the Conservative government of Colombia made education compulsory, but did not provide funds to make this possible.
  • In 1928, several Japanese families settled in Valle del Cauca where they came as farmers to grow crops.
  • In 1929, Elías Pellet Buitrago made the first radio broadcast in Colombia.
  • In 1935, enrollment at the elementary school level reached about 550,000, while in 1980, that number had risen to nearly 4,200,000.
  • In 1935, enrollment in high schools totaled 45,670 students; by 1980, the number had grown to 1,824,000 (Hanson).
  • In 1940, a journalist named Theodore Morde returned from the rainforest with hundreds of artifacts, and a story about how he found the lost city.
  • In 1945, Prado permitted free elections and legalized APRA.
  • In 1947, Father José Joaquin Solcedo initiated a church-sponsored program namedAcción Cultural Popular (ACPO), or Popular Culture Action.
  • In 1948, military leaders charged the president with being too lenient with the Apristas and dividing the armed forces.
  • In 1951 Colombia’s population was 11.5 million, and by 1973 it had doubled to 22.9 million.
  • In 1952, along with Peru and Chile, Ecuador signed the Declaration of Santiago (joined later by Colombia) to enforce these rights.
  • In 1954, television came to Colombia, where it was initially controlled by the state bureau of information and news (Oficina de Información y Prensa del Estado).
  • In 1955, the authority passed to the national office of television (Televisora Nacional).
  • In 1957, a military junta took control of the federal government.
  • In 1957, in an effort to bring continuity to the process of educational development, organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) persuaded the national government to add a planning office to the Ministry of Education.
  • In 1963, the Monetary Board was set up to assume from the bank the responsibility for setting required reserve rates for managing general monetary policy; this board, which formulates monetary, credit, and exchange policy, is thus the most influential financial agency in Colombia.
  • In 1964, the Colombian Overseas Technical Specialization Institute (ICETEX) was formed to coordinate scholarship and fellowship funds for Colombians wishing to study abroad.
  • In 1969 the American Kennel Club recognized these dogs as American Staffordshire Terriers and refused to recognize the American Pit Bull Terrier.
  • In 1969, Colombia, along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, formed what is now the Andean Community.
  • In 1969, Colombia, along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Perú, formed what is now the Andean Community.
  • In 1970, 20 percent of children in the appropriate age group enrolled in some form of secondary education.
  • In 1970, the Colombian Association of Universities recognized 25 public and private universities.
  • In 1970, the five-nation Bolivarian Highway was undertaken, as were east–west routes linking the Oriente with the Sierra, and Guayaquil with its hinterland.
  • In 1970, to increase educational opportunities, the Congress allowed universities to offer pre-kindergarten and kindergarten programs.
  • In 1972, more than 12,000,000 radios were in use in Colombia.
  • In 1973, the government created the National Resources and Environment Code.
  • In 1977 General Torrijos signed two treaties that would determine the future of the Canal Zone.
  • In 1977, free trade zones were established in Iquique and Punta Arenas.
  • In 1978 Policarpo Paz García overthrew Juan Alberto Melgar Castro in a “cocaine coup” financed by the Medellín Cartel-linked drug lord Juan Matta-Ballesteros.[12] The CIA took “a close and friendly interest” in the coup as Paz, unlike Melgar, was a keen supporter of Nicaragua’s Anastasio Somoza Debayle.[12] Under Paz, the Honduran army and intelligence service received a cut of Matta-Ballesteros’ profits in return for protection, as Honduras became a major shipment route for cocaine and marijuana from Colombia.[12] When the US Drug Enforcement Administration set up its first office in Tegucigalpa in 1981, its resident agent “rapidly came to the accurate conclusion that the entire Honduran government was deeply involved in the drug trade.”[13]
  • In 1978, another Liberal candidate, Julio César Turbay Ayala, won the presidency, but because his margin of victory was slim (49.5% against the Conservatives’ 46.6%), he continued the tradition of giving a number of cabinet posts to the opposition.
  • In 1979, The Congress of Colombia passed the Teacher’s Law (Estatuo Docente ), which specified the rights and benefits of teachers throughout the nation.
  • In 1980 the corresponding figures were US$357 million and 6.7 percent of exports, so in twenty years there was a slight decline in tourism’s contribution to the economy.
  • In 1980, the Ministry of National Education officially established four levels of higher education: intermediate professional studies, technological studies, university studies, and graduate studies.
  • In 1980, to address these criticisms, the national Ministry of Education adopted Decree 80, which promised to promote the scientific and pedagogical training of teachers in universities (Hanratty and Meditz; Wellington; Hanson).
  • In 1982 and 1986, however, Colombian voters turned out in record numbers, with 55% of the electorate participating in the presidential ballot in 1982 and 57% in 1988.
  • In 1982 domestic production was at 2.48 million cubic meters.
  • In 1982, with help from the World Bank, the Women’s World Bank was established to provide very small, low-interest loans to women micro-entrepreneurs in rural and remote regions.
  • In 1983, it was estimated that some 6,000 leftist guerrillas were active in Colombia in at least four guerrilla groups.
  • In 1984, President Belisario Betancur, a Conservative who won 47% of the popular vote, negotiated a cease-fire that included the release of many guerrillas imprisoned during the effort to overpower the insurgents.
  • In 1984, President Belisario Betancur, a Conservative, negotiated a cease-fire with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Democratic Alliance/M-19 (M-19) that included the release of many imprisoned guerrillas.
  • In 1984, President Belisario Betancur, a Conservative, negotiated a ceasefire with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Democratic Alliance/M-19 (M-19) that included the release of many imprisoned guerrillas.
  • In 1986 4.358 million cubic meters of gas were produced.
  • In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 28% of college and university enrollments.
  • In 1989, two years before the adoption of the new constitution, the Congress shifted school administration functions from the Ministry of Education and each department’s secretaries of education to the 1,024 municipal mayors in Colombia.
  • In 1990 cell phones were nonexistent, while in 1998 there were 49 subscribers per 1,000 people.
  • In 1990 there were more persons in the United States of Colombian birth—304,000—than of any other South American nationality.
  • In 1990, Colombia greatly accelerated an ambitious program of economic opening, called apertura, which is designed to make Colombia globally competitive.
  • In 1990, President Cesar Gaviria instituted a national system of economic liberalization known as apertura, or opening.
  • In 1990, President Cesar Gaviria instituted an economic restructuring plan known as apertura (opening).
  • In 1990, secondary school enrollments reached 1,849,243, which was about 46 percent of the school-age population (Hanson 1995).
  • In 1990, the administration of President Cesar Gaviria (1990-94) initiated economic liberalization or “apertura,” and this has continued since then, with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate.
  • In 1990, the administration of President Cesar Gaviria (1990-94) initiated economic liberalization or “apertura,” and this has continued since then, with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate.
  • In 1990, the administration of President Cesar Gaviria (1990-94) initiated economic liberalization or “apertura,” with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate.
  • In 1990, the government
    began an initiative to improve the national health system at every level.
  • In 1990, the guerrilla group M-19 (Movement of April 19) delivered its weapons to the government and scored surprising electoral gains as a legal political party.
  • In 1991 a new constitution was drafted by a Constituent Assembly and later approved by a majority of
  • In 1991 and 1992, the government passed laws to stimulate foreign investment in nearly all sectors of the economy.
  • In 1991, Colombia approved a new constitution.
  • In 1991, some 377,485 Peruvians left the country, and 309,136 returned.
  • In 1991, the enrollment at George Washington School was 483.
  • In 1991, the school had 318 students.
  • In 1992 the government began a program of restructuring Colombian television.
  • In 1992–93, a major macroeconomic adjustment program was introduced, featuring a sizable currency devaluation (35%) and substantial increases in domestic fuel and electricity prices.
  • In 1992, despite a severe drought, the amount of coffee exported increased by over 30% as a result of a successful strategy for expanding the external markets.
  • In 1993, a study demonstrated the importance of finishing college in Colombia.
  • In 1993, coffee production increased to 1,080,000 tons, but dwindled to only 678,000
    tons in 1994.
  • In 1993, Colombia departed from its older health care system to one of payment by capitation and structured competition among integrated health care service delivery systems; 5 million people in the poorest groups, previously excluded from the medical system, were given access to health services.
  • In 1993, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia achieved a customs union, with free trade between the four countries under the auspices of the Andean Pact.
  • In 1995, 10.0 percent of the population consumed 46.9 percent of the available income, while the lowest 10.0 percent of the population consumed only 1.0 percent.
  • In 1995, domestic political considerations constricted Colombia’s economic liberalization.
  • In 1995, mining and hydrocarbons grew by 17%, the highest growth sector in the Colombian economy.
  • In 1995-96, the United States and Colombia signed important agreements on environmental protection and civil aviation.
  • In 1996 and 1997 the administration of US president Bill Clinton decertified Colombia as a country fully cooperative with US narcotics policy.
  • In 1996 the United States was the destination of US$5,991 million of exports, while Venezuela had climbed to US$1,178 million.
  • In 1997 inbound tourists to Colombia numbered 1,193,000 people, contributing US$955 million in foreign exchange, representing 6 percent of exports.
  • In 1997 there were 60 television stations.
  • In 1997, exports reached US$17 billion and imports US$18.9 billion.
  • In 1997, the United States and Colombia signed an important maritime ship-boarding agreement to allow for search of suspected drug-running vessels.
  • In 1997, this share had dropped to only 21%, and by 2000, to 8%.
  • In 1998 Ecuador ran a trade deficit, exporting $4.1 billion worth of goods and importing $5.5 billion.
  • In 1998, growth slowed, and even turned negative in 1999.
  • In 1998, the Conservative Party came back to power when Andrés Pastrana won the presidential election with 50.5% of the vote, defeating Liberal Horacio Serpa.
  • In 1999 ENAP’s general manager issued a statement indicating that exhaustive exploration had failed to find new oil fields and that currently exploited deposits would be depleted within 6 years.
  • In 1999 GDP diminished by about 5 percent, the only negative result in close to 70 years as investment activity and demand plummeted.
  • In 1999 it hit an all-time high of 826,000 barrels per day, before declining to 616,000 barrels per day in 2001.
  • In 1999, about 3,000 Colombians from the north of Santander Department fled to Venezuela in response to the armed conflict in the region.
  • in 1999, but many opposition factions would like to see it voided.
  • In 1999, children up to one year of age were immunized against the following: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 74%, and measles, 74%.
  • In 1999, Colombian police arrested over 30 narco-traffickers, most of them extraditable, in “Operation Millennium” involving extensive international cooperation.
  • In 1999, due to economic instability in 1998, Colombia signed its first agreement with the IMF for a us$3 billion approved standby line of credit.
  • In 1999, Peru continued to produce more refugees than it received, due particularly to human rights violations.
  • In 1999, the CFTZ received US$4.9 billion in imports of which US$4 billion were re-exported.
  • In 1999, the CFTZ received US$4.9 billion in imports
    of which US$4 billion were re-exported.
  • In 1999, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs signed a resettlement agreement for refugees from the former Yugoslavia.
  • In 1999, the FARC murdered three U.S.
  • In 1999, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) urged Panamanian authorities to take a more flexible approach toward Colombians who arrived after February 1998 and were under a Temporary Protection plan.
  • In 1999, there were 27 insurance companies in operation, two of which were governmental.
  • In 1999, this disparity of wealth and poverty was reflected in Colombia’s per capita purchasing power of $6,200.
  • In 1999, U.S.
  • In 2000 alone, the pipelines were bombed 98 times and kidnappings for ransom were frequent; according to one estimate, rebel groups have managed to earn an estimated windfall of $140 million annually.
  • In 2000 Bourtese was convicted in absentia in the Netherlands for drug trafficking.
  • In 2000 manufactured products accounted for nearly 40 percent of all exports, with chemicals and textiles ranking near the top.
  • In 2000 the birth rate stood at 22.85 per 1,000 while the death rate was 5.73 per 1,000.
  • In 2000–02, 21.5% of cropland was irrigated, up from 13.1% during 1989–91.
  • In 2000, 91% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 85% had adequate sanitation.
  • In 2000, although the country had a land mass of 1,038,700 square kilometers, there were only 3,380 kilometers of railways.
  • In 2000, Colombia assigned 3.2% of its GDP to defense, according to the National Planning Department.
  • In 2000, Colombia had a trade surplus of us$1.5 billion, in contrast with a us$3.8 billion deficit in 1988.
  • In 2000, due to lower international commodity prices for coffee and coal, those exports decreased.
  • In 2000, exports were US$3.4 billion while imports reached US$5.6 billion.
  • In 2000, the Colombian financial system included 29 commercial banks (four of them state-owned), the Colombian Export Promotion Bank (BANCOLDEX), 107 foreign bank offices, six savings and loans corporations (CAVs), 10 development banks, 32 commercial finance companies, 37 trust companies, 33 insurance companies, and a state-owned mortgage bank.
  • In 2000, the government raised the price of Ecuadorian petrol by 60% in order to forge an economic recovery.
  • In 2000, the US government gave us$1.3 billion in aid to Colombia’s government and army, chiefly to help the war against drugs, but guerrilla armies continued to operate in at least two-fifths of the country.
  • In 2000, there were at least 70 cases of journalists who had been accused of defamation under the criminal justice system.
  • In 2001, the U.S.
  • In 2001, total market valuation had risen to us$13.2 billion with 123 listed companies, but turnover was at a record low of 3.2%.
  • In 2002 and 2019, the national team were runners-up at the Africa Cup of Nations and became one of only three African teams to ever reach the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup, defeating holders France in their first game.
  • In 2002, a one-time 1.2% tax on companies and individuals with assets over c$170 million (about us$65,000) was assessed to fund increased military spending.
  • In 2002, Colombia had 81 researchers and 46 technicians per million people engaged in research and development (R&D).
  • In 2002, inflation dropped further due to weak domestic demand.
  • In 2002, royalties were linked to the size of the discovery as opposed to a flat rate.
  • In 2002, there were 11,592 km (7,203 mi) of roads, of which about 4,079 km (2,534 mi) were paved, including 30 km (19 mi) of expressways.
  • In 2003 there were 266,900 registered passenger cars and 171,800 commercial vehicles.
  • In 2003 there were 43,197 km (26,843 mi) of highways, including 7,287 km (4,533 mi) of paved roads.
  • In 2003 worker remittances totaled $1.5 billion.
  • In 2003, a new oil policy created the National Agency for Hydrocarbons (ANH), which as of 2004 administers all exploration and production contracts, replacing Ecopetrol, the state owned hydrocarbon company.
  • In 2003, a new oil policy created the National Agency for Hydrocarbons (ANH), which now administers all exploration and production contracts.
  • In 2003, a new oil policy created the National Agency for Hydrocarbons, which as of 2004 administers all exploration and production contracts instead of Ecopetrol, the state owned hydrocarbon company.
  • In 2003, about 10.2% of the total land area was nationally protected.
  • In 2003, about 24% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in some type of higher education program.
  • In 2003, about 625,000 tourists arrived in the country and tourism receipts reached us$1.1 billion.
  • In 2003, direct premiums written totaled us$1.998 billion, with nonlife premiums accounting for us$1.449 billion.
  • In 2003, production and consumption of natural gas were each estimated at 215 billion cu ft.
  • In 2003, the US Trade Representative (USTR) was raising objections that restrictions on foreign entry into Colombia’s telecommunications sector violated its obligations under the World Trade Organization.
  • In 2003, there were 529,359 passenger cars and 269,248 commercial vehicles.
  • In 2003, there were an estimated 122 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; about 14,500 people were on a waiting list
    for telephone service installation.
  • In 2003, there were an estimated 179 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; nearly one million people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation.
  • In 2003, there were an estimated 548 radios and 319 television sets for every 1,000 people.
  • In 2003, these airports serviced about 9.143 million passengers.
  • In 2004 there were 1,608 refugees in Panama and 271 asylum seekers.
  • In 2004 there were 25 million cattle, 2.2 million sheep, and 2.3 million pigs.
  • In 2004 there were an estimated 980 airports.
  • In 2004 worker remittances were $231 million.
  • In 2004, a total of 114 companies were listed by the combined Bogotá, Medelin and Cali stock exchanges (Colombia Stock Exchange), which had a market capitalization of us$25.223
  • In 2004, coffee accounted for 28% of agricultural exports.
  • In 2004, coffee-growing farms, many under 6 hectares (15 acres), accounted for about 800,000 hectares (2 million acres), about 40% of the land under permanent crops.
  • In 2004, Colombia exported 42.1% of its products to the United States, 9.7% to Venezuela, and 6% to Ecuador, totalling over us$23 billion.
  • In 2004, Ecuador engaged in talks with Peru, Colombia, and the United States regarding a new free-trade agreement (to replace the 2002 Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act—ATPDEA—that was scheduled to expire in December 2006).
  • In 2004, Ecuador exported about $3.5 billion in products to the U.S.
  • In 2004, oil output was estimated at 530,000 barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted of 508,000 barrels per day.
  • In 2004, the bulk of exports went to the United States (29.5%), China (9.9%), the United Kingdom (9%), Chile (5.1%), and Japan (4.4%).
  • In 2004, the bulk of exports went to the United States (50.5%), Sweden (6.6%), Spain (5.1%), the Netherlands (4.4%), and Costa Rica (4.2%).
  • In 2004, the number of kidnappings fell by 60% and attacks against Colombia’s oil infrastructure fell significantly in 2003.
  • In 2004, the Uribe government established, for the first time in recent Colombian history, a government presence in all of the country’s 1,099 municipalities (county seats).
  • In 2004, there were 141 refugees in Colombia, 85 asylum seekers, and 2,000,000 internally displaced persons.
  • In 2004, there were over 60,000 human rights and civil society nongovernmental organizations in the country.
  • In 2005, 31 new exploration and production agreements and 28 technical evaluation contracts were signed between private investors and the Colombian ANH, representing $367 million in oil investments.
  • In 2005, agriculture accounted for 12.5% of the GDP.
  • In 2005, approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 32% of the population under 15 years of age.
  • In 2005, Colombia was the largest producer in Latin America of coal (59 million tons) and ferronickel (39,696 tons).
  • In 2005, Colombia’s labor force was estimated at 20.52 million.
  • In 2005, exports reached $16 billion (FOB—Free on Board), while imports grew to $12 billion (FOB).
  • In 2005, exports reached $7.4 billion (FOB—free on board), while imports grew to $8.7 billion (FOB).
  • In 2005, gas reserves totaled 6.711 billion cubic feet.
  • In 2005, Habitat for Humanity reported that about 11.5 million homes are still without basic necessities.
  • In 2005, it was 6.74 million carats, generating $72 million in revenue.
  • In 2005, merchant marine companies had an aggregate of 15 vessels with 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 35,427 GRT.
  • In 2005, new FDI totaled $10.2 billion, an increase of over 300% from 2004.
  • In 2005, the net migration rate was an estimated – 0.86 migrants per 1,000 population.
  • In 2006 Operation Kingfish mounted 870 operations, compared to 607 in 2005.
  • In 2006, Chile has begun FTA negotiations with Japan and India.
  • In 2006, Chile plans to begin FTA negotiations with Japan and India.
  • In 2006, Colombia was the United States’ fifth-largest export market in the Western Hemisphere behind Canada, Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela and the largest agricultural export market in the hemisphere after the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) countries.
  • In 2006, Ecuador exported about $6.7 billion in products to the U.S.
  • In 2006, gas reserves totaled 7,349 billion cubic feet.
  • In 2006, new FDI totaled $6.3 billion, an increase of 294% from 2002.
  • In 2006, the JCF arrested 5,409 persons on drug related charges, including 269 foreigners.
  • In 2006, through cargo scanning, the Jamaican Customs Contraband Enforcement Team seized over 3,000 pounds of marijuana, ten kg of cocaine, and approximately $500,000 at Jamaican air and seaports.
  • In 2007, Chile held trade negotiations with Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and China.
  • In 2007, Chile plans to begin negotiations with Thailand, Malaysia, and Australia.
  • In 2007, together with the Cape Verdean Police, they carried out Operation Flying Launch (Operacão Lancha Voadora), a successful operation to put an end to a drug trafficking group which smuggled cocaine from Colombia to the Netherlands and Germany using the country as a reorder point.
  • In 2008, Chile hopes to conclude an FTA with Australia, and finalize an expanded agreement (covering trade in services and investment) with China.
  • In 2008, however, the ‘False Positives’ scandal rocked the nation, with allegations that members of the army had murdered hundreds of civilians who were then passed off as rebels.
  • In 2012, the Dominican government made a survey of immigrants in the country and found that there were: 458,233 Haitian-born; 13,514 U. S.-born (excluding Puerto Rican-born); 6,720 Spanish-born; 4,416 Puerto Rican-born; 4,044 Italian-born; 3,643 Chinese-born; 3,599 French-born; 3,434 Venezuelan-born; 3,145 Cuban-born; 2,738 Colombian-born; 1,792 German-born; among others.[44][45][46]
  • In 2016, a historic peace accord ended the 50-year armed conflict between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
  • In 2016, a peace agreement between the Government of Colombia and the country’s main armed opposition group, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) put an end to almost six decades of conflict.
  • In 2016, approximately 92% of cocaine samples seized in the U.S.
  • In 2018 Saeta renews contract for 5 more years to continue dressing the national team.
  • In 2020, the countries with the most international purchases from Mexico were United States (US$72M), Canada (US$264k), Puerto Rico (US$253k), Colombia (US$68.1k), and Singapore (US$32k).
  • In 2020, the main commercial destinations of Vacuum Cleaners, Incl.
  • In 2020, working with crypto exchanges, Colombia introduced a sandbox test environment for cryptocurrencies, before Brazil’s Securities Commission and its Central Bank did the same.
  • In the 1830s, under the direction of President Francisco de Paula Santander, public primary school enrollment rose from 17,000 children to 20, 000.
  • In the 1840s, two decades after the Monroe Doctrine declared US intentions to be the dominant anti-European imperial power in the Western Hemisphere, North American and French interests became excited about the prospects of constructing railroads and/or canals through Central America to quicken trans-oceanic travel.
  • In the 1860s and 1870s, the Peruvian government imported Chinese laborers to mine guano deposits, build railroads, and work on cotton plantations.
  • In the 1930s, Colombia began to embrace modern architecture.
  • In the 1950s, however, what was later called white flight began and middle-income African Americans started taking their place.
  • In the 1950s, transistor radios became popular and appeared everywhere (Williams and Guerrieri).
  • In the 1960s the Central Bank of Ecuador took as its emblem a golden sun mask from the La Tolita archaeological culture of Esmeraldas Province.
  • In the 1970s, industry surpassed agriculture as the major contributor to the nation’s economy.
  • In the 1970s, the number of member radio stations held by the major networks increased.
  • In the 1980s, Colombian educators introduced an innovation called the New School Movement that spread throughout Latin America.
  • In the 1980s, only three percent of all Colombians resided in the Pacific lowlands, a region of jungle and swamp with considerable but little-exploited potential in minerals and other resources.
  • In the 1990s the indigenous organization CONAIE appropriated this same mask as its own emblem of multinationality of el pueblo.
  • In the 1990s, there were 61,400 foreign-born persons in Panama, of which 13,644 were Colombians.