Overview of Ecuador
Ecuadorean debt had been trading at levels that signaled broad investor skepticism amid worry that a victory for Arauz would lead to unsustainable levels of social spending and an inevitable default from a politician who promised to prioritize the poor over the powerful.Lasso, a 65-year-old self-made millionaire and father of five, was largely seen as representing the establishment, having vowed to uphold a $6.5 billion financing agreement with the International Monetary Fund and to keep up payments on the country’s overseas bonds.
Ecuador is divided into four geographic regions: the coastal lowlands and mountain area; the Central Andes Mountains and its two major chains (Cordillera Occidental in the West) and the (Cordillera Oriental in the east); the lower mountains that fade into rolling hills and lowlands of the east, and the territory of the Galapagos Islands – officially called the Archipielago de Colon – located about 1,000km to the west.
Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies), the Organization of American States (OAS), and many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, and the Community of Andean Nations.
Ecuador was in the final stages of negotiating a free trade agreement with the U.S., but that progress stalled with an April 2006 Hydrocarbons Law mandating contract terms in possible violation of the bilateral investment treaty, and the May 2006 seizure of the assets of Occidental Petroleum, at the time the country’s largest U.S.
Ecuadorian painters include: Eduardo Kingman, Oswaldo Guayasamín and Camilo Egas from the Indiginist Movement; Manuel Rendon, Jaime Zapata, Enrique Tábara, Aníbal Villacís, Theo Constante, León Ricaurte and Estuardo Maldonado from the Informalist Movement; and Luis Burgos Flor with his abstract, Futuristic style.
Ecuador is inclusive has made officials becoming the first country to formalize these systems including a new recently approved law called Monetary Code, which included an electronic currency that allows a few independence Dollar pattern and possible non-payment of seigniorage from the use of this currency.
Ecuador’s exit procedures mandate that minors (under the age of 18) who are citizens or residents of Ecuador and who are traveling alone, with one parent, or with a third party must present a copy of their birth certificate and written authorization from the absent parent(s) or legal guardian.
Ecuador benefited from medical equipment and personal protective equipment donations; funding to make improvements to its medical and public health systems; funds to purchase rapid test kits; help for refugees, migrants, and host communities; and assistance for economic reactivation
Ecuadorian-American Chamber of Commerce—Quito Edificio Multicentro, 4 Piso La Nina y Avenida 6 de Diciembre Quito, Ecuador Tel: (593) (2) 250-7450 Fax: (593) (2) 250-4571 E-Mail: [email protected] or [email protected] (Branches: Ambato, Cuenca & Manta)
Ecuador offers great opportunities for hiking and climbing; unfortunately, a few travelers have been attacked and robbed in remote sections of well known climbs and several rapes have also been reported, so female hikers and climbers need to be extremely careful.
withdrew from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1992, the country’s daily crude oil production rose from 321,000 barrels in 1992 to nearly 400,000 barrels by the end of 1995.During the first 11 months of that year, oil exports to the United States totaled 226,000 barrels per day.Ecuador is only second to Venezuela as a source of oil imports for the United States.In recent years, an increasingly important percentage of Ecuador’s national income has come from the petroleum industry.Initially, this industry was slow in developing, and production actually declined from 2,849,000 barrels of crude oil in 1965 to a low of 1,354,000 barrels in 1971.Net oil exports in 2004 were estimated at 390,800 barrels per day.Petroecuador, the state oil agency, is the largest oil producer in Ecuador, controlling around 37% of the country’s output.Production in 2004 was estimated at 534,800 barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted for 528,200 barrels per day.Starting in the 1970s, however, output increased dramatically, from 28,579,000 barrels in 1972 to 77,052,000 barrels in 1981, and to 109,400,000 barrels in 1991.With estimated proven oil reserves of 4.6 billion barrels, as of 1 January 2005, Ecuador has the third-largest oil reserves in South America, and is the continent’s fifth-largest oil producer.
Sustaining the population is one of the Ecuadorian government's
primary national concerns.Article 39 of the Ecuadorian Constitution
addresses the issue of population, guaranteeing individuals the right to
determine how many children they will have, while noting the
accountability of the state to inform and educate individuals about the
responsibilities that accompany this right.Because of Ecuador's
strong Catholic influence with its emphasis on family, population
control is a sensitive topic, and the government is reluctant to make
strong statements on the issue.To ameliorate poor crop production and
slow rural to urban migration, the government offers small grants to
individuals to subsidize their farming practices.
Anthony dollars, however, are not generally accepted.Ecuador has its own coins, which are exactly the same size and weight as US coins up through 50-cent pieces; both them and US coins are used, although US coins are now used more frequently.Susan B.US paper money is used for most transactions.US Sacagawea dollar coins are also widely used, more so than in the United States itself.
Please note that SIT will make every effort to maintain its programs as described.To respond to emergent situations, like COVID-19, however, SIT may have to change or cancel programs.
How expensive is Ecuador?
Youth hostels and accommodations are plentiful with season prices ranging between USD$10 and USD$15 a night.Mid-range hotels in the larger cities such as Quito range between USD$48 to USD$150 a night but bargains abound.When planning your trip account for meals, ground transportation, entrance fees, and entertainment.flights, day tours, and rental car costs will vary based on your travel itinerary and length of stay.There are many river tours on the Amazon River as well as dozens of companies offering cruises to ports of call such as San Cristobal in the Galapagos Islands and the port city of Guayaquil.
What currency is used in Ecuador?
The official currency of Ecuador is the US Dollar commonly represented by the symbols (USD; $).It replaced the Sucre in 2000.
Ask LP: What countries can I travel to if I’ve had the COVID-19 vaccine?
In a number of countries, proving that you have received the vaccine will allow travelers to skip a quarantine period.
Do I need a visa to visit Ecuador?
Depending on your citizenship and country of origin, a visa and other travel documentation may be required to visit or study in Ecuador.For most visitors, a visa is not required to enter Ecuador, but such stays are generally limited to 90 days.There is a special exception for visitors from Peru red.No visa is required if you are U.S.citizen unless you are planning to stay longer than 90 days.If you are planning to visit the Galapagos Islands obtain a Transit Control Card as it will be required.
Where should I visit when in Ecuador?
Ecuador is one of the lesser traveled tourist destinations in South America which means that many parts of the country have been undiscovered and unspoiled by masses of foreign visitors.
It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.
What can I do to avoid bed bugs?
Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.
When is the best time of year to travel to Ecuador?
Because of the diverse geography and climate, there is no “best time of year” to visit Ecuador.However, there are peak seasons with June to September considered the busiest.In most parts of Ecuador, January to May is the wettest, coolest time of the year.Average daytime temperature is about 70 °F (24°C) with nighttime temperatures more than twenty degrees cooler.Ecuador’s proximity to the equator is misleading as the climate varies by region due to the differences in elevation that span sea level to the highest point in the country measuring 20,000 ft.
What are some of the “must see” destinations in Ecuador?
The Galapagos Islands are definitely on the list as well as the white sand beaches dotting the Pacific coastline in Atacames such as Tonsupa and Mompiche, and in Salinas.Other memorable activities include volcano tours in Banos, adventure travel in the Andes, and whale watching as humpback whales make their annual migration off the shores of Ecuador.
Where is Ecuador?
Ecuador is a country located on the northwestern edge of South America.It sits directly on the Equator and is subsequently positioned in the northern, southern and western hemispheres of the Earth.Ecuador is bordered by Colombia to the north, by Peru to the south and east, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west.It shares maritime borders with Costa Rica.
Why Are Countries Building Their Cities From Scratch?
Imagine having a blank canvas on which to master-plan a brand new city; drawing its roads, homes, commerces, and public spaces on a fresh slate and crafting its unique urban identity.Every urban planner has fantasized about designing a city from scratch and luckily for some, this dream is morphing into concrete opportunities.
History of Ecuador
In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, and as of 1585, it was officially known as Ciudad de México (Mexico City). Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824.
In 1526, settlers founded Santa Marta, the oldest Spanish city still in existence in Colombia.
In 1534, the Spanish arrived and defeated the Inca armies, and Spanish colonists became the new elite.
In 1536, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and a company of 900 men traveled up the Magdalena River in search of the legendary land of El Dorado.
In 1548, Gonzalo Pizarro was defeated by the forces of a subsequent royal emissary and executed for treason.
In 1549, the area was a Spanish colony with the capital at Santa Fe de Bogot á.
In 1549, the area was a Spanish colony with the capital at Santa Fe de Bogotá.
In 1552 an art school was established in Quito, one of the first of its kind in South America.
In 1563, Quito became the seat of a royal “audiencia” (administrative district) of Spain.
In 1563, Quito became the seat of a royal “audiencia” (administrative district) of Spain.
In 1563, Quito became the seat of a royal audiencia (administrative district) of Spain and part of the Vice-Royalty of Lima, and later of the Vice-Royalty of Nueva Granada.
In 1717, Bogotá became the capital of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, which included what are now Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.
In 1739, New Granada retained independent status as a Viceroyalty separate from Peru.
In 1809 a group of citizens overthrew the Royal Audiencia, but Spanish rule was restored within 3 months.
In 1819, Ecuador joined Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama in a confederacy known as Greater Colombia.
In 1819, when the famous leader Simón Bolívar addressed the Congress of Angostura, he called for the establishment of universal popular education, claiming that the Catholic religious orders had not created anything that resembled a proper system.
In 1820 Guayaquil again declared independence, and soon after Simon Bolivar sent Antonio Jose de Sucre into Ecuador to lead a decisive campaign against the Spaniards.
In 1822, at the Battle of Pichincha, Spanish royalists were defeated by Antonio Jose de Sucre Alcala, and Quito became known as the Department of the South, which was part of the confederacy known as the Republic of Colombia, a confederation with Venezuela and Colombia.
In 1826, it was the seat of the Pan American Conference called by the liberator, Simón Bolívar.
In 1830 Ecuador became an independent republic, gained its name, and began a tumultuous history racked with ethnic clashes and dominated by a white, European–oriented oligarchy.
In 1830, Ecuador took its name from the Spanish word for the equator, which crosses the entire northern sector.
In 1830, the first Ecuadorian constitutional congress met at Riobamba and proclaimed the republic.
In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.
In 1830, when this union collapsed, the traditional name Quito was dropped in favor of La República del Ecuador, “The Republic of the Equator.”
In 1831 the country became the State of New Granada.
In 1832, the first president of Ecuador, Juan José Flores, declared the islands a national territory.
In 1838 Rocafuerte established educational agencies to provide regional supervision in Guayaquil, Cuenca, Marabi, Loja, Chimborazo, and Imbabura.
In 1851 slavery was abolished, 60,000 Negroes were freed, and tribute payments by the Indians were abolished.
In 1860, 15 years of authoritarian rule by President Gabriel Garcia Moreno began.
In 1864, Spain organized a so-called naval expedition, whose main objective was to recover control of its former colonies.
In 1882 insurgents rose up against the regime of dictator Ignacio de Veintimilla.
In 1904, the structure of secondary schools was reorganized by reducing the program from seven to six years.
In 1929, Chile returned Tacna to Peru.
In 1930, after the worldwide depression reached Peru, Leguía was overthrown by Luis M.
In 1930, the National Congress of Elementary and Normal School Education generated recommendations for a curriculum that still makes the educational programs today.
In 1932, Wittmer leaves Germany with her husband and step-son to settle into the nearly unpopulated island – where they clear land, live in an old pirates’ cave, and then build a home just in time for Wittmer to have a baby.
In 1941, fighting broke out and it was ended by the Rio Protocol.
In 1941, war broke out between the two countries.
In 1946, Belasco Ibarra authorized private universities to be established in Ecuador.
In 1952, along with Peru and Chile, Ecuador signed the Declaration of Santiago (joined later by Colombia) to enforce these rights.
In 1959, a modest attempt was made to colonize the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas with Italian families.
In 1959, Ecuador declared the Galápagos a national park to prevent the extinction of the wildlife.
In 1969, Colombia, along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, formed what is now the Andean Community.
In 1969, Colombia, along with Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Perú, formed what is now the Andean Community.
In 1970, the five-nation Bolivarian Highway was undertaken, as were east–west routes linking the Oriente with the Sierra, and Guayaquil with its hinterland.
In 1972, a nationalist military regime seized power and used the new oil wealth and foreign borrowing to pay for a program of industrialization, land reform, and subsidies for urban consumers.
In 1972, construction of the Andean pipeline was completed.
In 1975, Peru became the first country to recognize Quechua as one of its official languages. Ecuador conferred official status on the language in its 2006 constitution, and in 2009, Bolivia adopted a new constitution that recognized Quechua and several other indigenous languages as official languages of the country.
In 1977, free trade zones were established in Iquique and Punta Arenas.
In 1978 and 1979, coffee brought high export earnings ($281.2 million and $263.1 million, respectively), but with lower world prices, coffee export earnings fell to $106 million in 1981, despite an increase in production.
In 1979, Ecuador led the way in Latin America by developing a democratic government.
In 1981 and 1995 war broke out again.
In 1981, Jaime Roldós Aguilera perished in a plane crash; in 1997, Abdalá Bucaram Ortiz was ousted by an act of congress and by grass–roots movements for “mental incapacity”; and in 2000, Jamil Mahuad Witt was ousted by a conjuncture of an indigenous and grass–roots uprising and a military coup.
In 1982 domestic production was at 2.48 million cubic meters.
In 1986 4.358 million cubic meters of gas were produced.
In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 27% of college and university enrollments.
In 1989 the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) signed a historic agreement with the Ministry of Education that established a national program of bilingual, bicultural education designed and managed by CONAIE and its member organizations.
In 1990, the administration of President Cesar Gaviria (1990-94) initiated economic liberalization or “apertura,” and this has continued since then, with tariff reductions, financial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and adoption of a more liberal foreign exchange rate.
In 1991, some 377,485 Peruvians left the country, and 309,136 returned.
In 1992–93, a major macroeconomic adjustment program was introduced, featuring a sizable currency devaluation (35%) and substantial increases in domestic fuel and electricity prices.
In 1992, currency appreciation caused a narrowing in the trade surplus, which pushed down international reserves.
In 1992, voters elected a conservative government, headed by President Sixto Durán-Ballén of the Republican Unity Party (PUR) and Vice President Alberto Dahik of the Conservative Party (CP).
In 1993, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia achieved a customs union, with free trade between the four countries under the auspices of the Andean Pact.
In 1994, increased production in the petroleum, banana, construction, and manufacturing sectors generated growth of 4%, up from 3% the
In 1994, the Chilean Ministry of Education, who had enacted a plan like this one, recognized that these policies had had negative effects on the quality of education.
In 1994, the Ministry of Education proposed new curricula reforms that contemplated three steams of education: basic education for the majority, technical or career education, and special education aimed at forming the new educated elite.
In 1995 an undeclared war took effect between Peru and Ecuador along the disputed southern border.
In 1995, a serious drought affected hydroelectric generating capacity and daily blackouts became common.
In 1995, the entire governance structure of higher education was to be changed to more closely resemble a corporate model.
In 1995, the United States and several Latin American banana-exporting countries complained that the European Union (EU) was breaching international free-trade legislation by offering protected quotas to banana exports from former colonies in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.
In 1996 the United States was the destination of US$5,991 million of exports, while Venezuela had climbed to US$1,178 million.
In 1996 the wealthiest 20 percent of Ecuadorians earned half of the nation’s total income, while the poorest 20 percent collected only 5 percent.
In 1996, Abdala Bucaram, from the Guayaquil-based Roldosista Party (PRE), won the presidency on a platform that promised populist economic and social reforms and the breaking of what Bucaram termed the power of the nation’s oligarchy.
In 1996, Ecuador had 20 agricultural, medical, scientific, and technical learned societies and research institutes, most notably the General Directorate of Hydrocarbons, the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, the Ecuadoran Institute of Natural Sciences, and the National Institute of Agricultural Research, all in Quito; the Charles Darwin Research Station in the Galápagos Islands; and the Naval Oceanographic Institute in Guayaquil.
In 1996, the leaders of 11 indigenous groups joined with women, ecologists, and human rights workers to found the Pachakutik (“change” or “revolution” in Quichua) political movement.
In 1997 the government passed a law on promoting foreign investment.
In 1997, Ecuador immunized large numbers of children up to one year old as follows: tuberculosis, 99%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 76%; polio, 77%; and measles, 75%.
In 1997, exports reached US$17 billion and imports US$18.9 billion.
In 1998 (the latest year for which the following data is available) Ecuador had 84 researchers and 73 technicians per million people engaged in research and development (R&D).
In 1998 Ecuador ran a trade deficit, exporting $4.1 billion worth of goods and importing $5.5 billion.
In 1998, a 70-member elected National Constituent Assembly rewrote the constitution.
In 1998, a new Judicial Council, with the power to administer the court system and discipline judges, began operations.
In 1998, Ecuador experienced one of its worst economic crises.
In 1999 ENAP’s general manager issued a statement indicating that exhaustive exploration had failed to find new oil fields and that currently exploited deposits would be depleted within 6 years.
In 1999 gross domestic product (GDP) shrunk 7 percent from its 1998 level, and imports fell drastically because of the lack of financial capital in the country.
In 1999, about 3,000 Colombians from the north of Santander Department fled to Venezuela in response to the armed conflict in the region.
In 1999, Peru continued to produce more refugees than it received, due particularly to human rights violations.
In 1999, the CFTZ received US$4.9 billion in imports of which US$4 billion were re-exported.
In 1999, the CFTZ received US$4.9 billion in imports
of which US$4 billion were re-exported.
In 1999, the economy experienced a currency and banking crisis, a default on public debt, and soaring inflation, which reached 60% for the end of the year.
In 1999, the government was near bankruptcy, the currency lost 40% of its value against the dollar, and the poverty rate soared to 70%, doubling in five years.
In 2000 as part of the nation’s new economic reforms, these subsidies were gradually removed, and oil prices were set to international levels, making gasoline unaffordable for many Ecuadorians.
In 2000, about 38% of the total land area was forested.
In 2000, Ecuador accepted a $600 million loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), IBRD, and the Andean Development Corporation; while it rescheduled loan payments on $600 million with the Paris Club.
In 2000, exports were US$3.4 billion while imports reached US$5.6 billion.
In 2000, President Jamil Mahuad announced that Ecuador would adopt the U.S.
In 2000, the government raised the price of Ecuadorian petrol by 60% in order to forge an economic recovery.
In 2001 a new mining law went into effect designed to spur increased foreign investment in Ecuador’s considerable untapped mineral reserves.
In 2001 and 2002, the annual FDI inflow rose over 75% (to $1.33 billion and $1.28 billion, respectively), contrary to the worldwide trend of sharp decreases in inward FDI.
In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 26% of household consumption was spent on food, 15% on fuel, 13% on health care, and 10% on education.
In 2001 real GDP growth increased to 5.2% (3.2% on a per capita basis) and the inflation rate moderated to 22.4%.
In 2001, Ecuador produced cadmium, copper, gold, lead, silver, zinc, cement, bentonite, common clay, kaolin, feldspar, crude gypsum, silica (glass sand), ferruginous sand, stone, sand and gravel (limestone, marble, pozzolan, pumice), salt, and sulfur.
In 2002 and 2003, bombs have exploded at a McDonalds restaurant in Guayaquil and at an American Airlines office in Quito.
in 2002 were over $2.1 billion.
In 2002, economic growth was slow, due in part to tax cuts, a drop in oil output, large increases in a public wage bill, and a high-level corruption scandal.
In 2002, high technology exports were valued at $34 million, accounting for 7% of all manufactured exports.
In 2002, it is estimated that Ecuador had an installed generating capacity, electric power output, and consumption of: 3.3 GW; 11.5 billion kWh; and 10.8 billion kWh, respectively.
In 2002, lava and mudflows caused by Reventador volcano closed a major Quito/northern-border highway and blanketed Quito in ash, shutting down the Quito airport for several days.
In 2002, of the estimated 72,900 km (45,300 mi) of existing roads, only 8,700 km (5,406 mi) were paved.
In 2002, oil accounted for about 1/3 of public sector revenue and 40% of export earnings.
In 2002, oil accounted for about one-third of public sector revenue and 40% of export earnings.
In 2002, the birthrate was an estimated 25.5 per 1,000 people.
In 2002, there were 22 private banks operating in Ecuador.
In 2002, U.S.
In 2003 there were 43,197 km (26,843 mi) of highways, including 7,287 km (4,533 mi) of paved roads.
In 2003 worker remittances totaled $1.5 billion.
In 2003, about 18% of the land area was legally protected.
In 2003, PetroEcuador’s problems—production was 35% below the level in 1990—were under study by an international financial group headed by the IMF, which will doubtless prescribe more openness to foreign investment in the sector.
In 2003, the US Trade Representative (USTR) was raising objections that restrictions on foreign entry into Colombia’s telecommunications sector violated its obligations under the World Trade Organization.
In 2003, there were 346,300 automobiles and 234,800 commercial vehicles.
In 2003, there were 529,359 passenger cars and 269,248 commercial vehicles.
In 2003, there were an estimated 422 radios and 252 television sets for every 1,000 people.
In 2003, total scheduled airline traffic amounted to 8 million freight ton-km and around 1.123 million passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.
In 2004, Colombia exported 42.1% of its products to the United States, 9.7% to Venezuela, and 6% to Ecuador, totalling over us$23 billion.
In 2004, Ecuador engaged in talks with Peru, Colombia, and the United States regarding a new free-trade agreement (to replace the 2002 Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act—ATPDEA—that was scheduled to expire in December 2006).
In 2004, Ecuador exported about $3.5 billion in products to the U.S.
In 2004, oil accounted for over 50% of total export earnings.
In 2004, there were 141 refugees in Colombia, 85 asylum seekers, and 2,000,000 internally displaced persons.
In 2005 a total of 85 had paved runways, and there was also one heliport.
In 2005 Ecuador’s active armed forces personnel numbered 46,500, which were supported by 118,000 reservists.
In 2005, approximately 7% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 33% of the population under 15 years of age.
In 2005, Ecuador’s defense budget totaled $593 million.
In 2005, Ecuador’s merchant marine consisted of 31 ships of at least 1,000 GRT, with a total gross registered tonnage (GRT) of 241,403.
In 2005, only 2–3% of the nation’s labor force was affiliated with a labor union.
In 2006 former Slovenian national team coach Srecko Katanec was appointed as the head coach and was given a two-year contract.
In 2006, Chile has begun FTA negotiations with Japan and India.
In 2006, Chile plans to begin FTA negotiations with Japan and India.
In 2006, economic growth was 3.9%, inflation was 2.9%, and both petroleum and non-petroleum exports expanded.
In 2006, Ecuador exported about $6.7 billion in products to the U.S.
In 2006, Ecuador exported about $6.7 billion in products to the United States.
In 2006, huge nationwide protests took place concerning a potential free-trade agreement with the U.S.
In 2006, it slipped three positions in both the World Bank’s Doing Business Index (from 120 to 123) and the World Economic Forum’s Competitiveness Index (from 87 to 90), as other nations have moved more aggressively to adapt to globalization.
In 2006, oil accounted for 59 percent of total export earnings.
In 2006, oil accounted for 59% of total export earnings.
In 2006, Robert Benfer and a research team discovered a 4200-year-old observatory at Buena Vista, a site in the Andes several kilometers north of present-day Lima.
In 2007, Chile held trade negotiations with Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and China.
In 2007, Chile plans to begin negotiations with Thailand, Malaysia, and Australia.
In 2008, Chile hopes to conclude an FTA with Australia, and finalize an expanded agreement (covering trade in services and investment) with China.
In 2008, Ecuador was the first country to recognize Rights of Nature or “ecosystem rights”.
In 2011, Ecuador expelled the US ambassador amidst accusations of
In 2014, the National Assembly of Ecuador banned bitcoin and decentralized digital currencies while the central bank stated that the online trading of cryptocurrencies is not forbidden.
In 2018, total U.S.
In the 1860s and 1870s, the Peruvian government imported Chinese laborers to mine guano deposits, build railroads, and work on cotton plantations.
In the 1920s, the original Socialist Party of Ecuador split into the Socialist Party and the Communist Party.
In the 1960s the Central Bank of Ecuador took as its emblem a golden sun mask from the La Tolita archaeological culture of Esmeraldas Province.
In the 1960s the government established a strong, centralized control over both the public and private system and allotted a high proportion of the national budget to education in an attempt to gain this control over its own school system and that of religious schools.
In the 1960s the rural curriculum was upgraded to better compare with that of urban institutions, and the curriculum was revised to be more relevant to students’ lives and to reflect the modern world.
In the 1960s the secondary curriculum was made up of general studies, Spanish, foreign languages, mathematics, natural sciences, physical sciences, history, geography, physical education, and applied electives such as agriculture, business, artisan skills, and music.
In the 1970s their slogan was a common greeting in the Inca Empire: ama shua, ama llulla, ama quilla (“don’t steal, don’t lie, don’t be lazy”).
In the 1970s there were nine types of secondary schools in Ecuador.
In the 1980s and to an extent even earlier, the burgeoning school populations led to students graduating from institutions of higher learning without being able to get a job because the number of new jobs remained smaller than the number of increasingly higher educated students.
In the 1980s there were efforts to target literacy programs to the needs of the rural population and non-Spanish speakers, but Spanish is the official language of Ecuador.
In the 1980s, Indians and mestizos represented the bulk of the population, with each group accounting for roughly 40 percent of total population.
In the 1990s the indigenous organization CONAIE appropriated this same mask as its own emblem of multinationality of el pueblo.
On 5 February 1997, between 2.5 and 3.0 million Ecuadorians, about one-quarter of the population, demonstrated in the streets against the president they had elected the previous July.
On 9 July 1883 the liberal commander Eloy Alfaro participated in the Battle of Guayaquil, and after further conflict he became the president of Ecuador on 4 September 1895.