Overview of Egypt
Egyptians often refer to Cairo as Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]; Egyptian Arabic: مَصر), the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city’s importance for the country. Its official name al-Qāhirah (Arabic: القاهرة) means “the Vanquisher” or “the Conqueror”, supposedly due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir (Arabic: النجم القاهر, “the Conquering Star”), was rising at the time when the city was founded, possibly also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu’izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams (Arabic: عين شمس, “Eye of the Sun”).
Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Israel for the purpose of sexual exploitation; these women generally arrive as tourists and are subsequently trafficked through the Sinai Desert by Bedouin tribes; men and women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are believed to be trafficked through the Sinai Desert to Israel and Europe for labor exploitation; a few Egyptian children from rural areas are trafficked within the country to work as domestic servants or laborers in the agriculture industry.
Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders. A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptians continued to practice their religion undisturbed and largely maintained their own separate communities from their foreign conquerors. The language of administration became Greek, but the mass of the Egyptian population was Egyptian-speaking and concentrated in the countryside, while most Greeks lived in Alexandria and only few had any knowledge of Egyptian.
Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: A transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.
Egypt later won the competition and went on to win the next edition in Ghana (2008) making the Egyptian and Ghanaian national teams the only teams to win the African Nations Cup Back to back which resulted in Egypt winning the title for a record number of six times in the history of African Continental Competition.
Egypt’s first four presidents were all drawn from professional military backgrounds, due in large part to the central role of the armed forces of Egypt in the Revolution of 1952, and oversaw authoritarian governments, with varying limits on political participation and freedom of speech.
Egypt’s Permanent Representative at the United Nations Office in Geneva Ahmed Ehab Gamal el Din has stressed the need to benefit from untapped manufacturing capabilities of a few developing countries in a way that helps increase the global production of vaccines
Egypt’s heartland, the Nile River valley and delta, was the home of one of the principal civilizations of the ancient Middle East and, like Mesopotamia farther east, was the site of one of the world’s earliest urban and literate societies.
Egyptians, disaffected and weary after a series of foreign occupations, identified the story of the mother-goddess Isis protecting her child Horus with that of the Virgin Mary and her son Jesus escaping the emperor Herod.
The Cairo International Stadium was built in 1960 and its multi-purpose sports complex that houses the main football stadium, an indoor stadium, several satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global games, including the African Games, U17 Football World Championship and was one of the stadiums scheduled that hosted the 2006 Africa Cup of Nations which was played in January 2006.This achievement had also placed the Egyptian football team as the #9 best team in the world’s FIFA rankings.This was followed by a third consecutive win in Angola 2010, making Egypt the only country with a record 3-consecutive and 7-total Continental Football Competition winner.
Although Cairo avoided Europe’s stagnation during the Late Middle Ages, it could not escape the Black Death, which struck the city more than fifty times between 1348 and 1517. During its initial, and most deadly waves, approximately 200,000 people were killed by the plague, and, by the 15th century, Cairo’s population had been reduced to between 150,000 and 300,000. The city’s status was further diminished after Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route around the Cape of Good Hope between 1497 and 1499, thereby allowing spice traders to avoid Cairo.
Cairo’s political influence diminished significantly after the Ottomans supplanted Mamluk power over Egypt in 1517.Although no longer on the spice route, the city facilitated the transportation of Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, primarily to Anatolia, North Africa, and the Balkans.Cairene merchants were instrumental in bringing goods to the barren Hejaz, especially during the annual hajj to Mecca. It was during this same period that al-Azhar University reached the predominance among Islamic schools that it continues to hold today; pilgrims on their way to hajj often attested to the superiority of the institution, which had become associated with Egypt’s body of Islamic scholars. By the 16th century, Cairo also had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants.
Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a province, with Cairo as its capital. For this reason, the history of Cairo during Ottoman times is often described as inconsequential, especially in comparison to other time periods. However, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Cairo remained an important economic and cultural centre.
Cairo has been a crossroads of regional commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development.Factors such as population size, historical events, military strength, diplomatic expertise, and a strategic geographical position give Egypt extensive political influence in Africa and the Middle East.
What documents do I need to travel?
Depending on your nationality, you may require visas to enter certain African countries.You are fully responsible for obtaining all necessary visas prior to the departure of your trip.Contiki is not legally permitted to knowingly allow anybody who does not have a valid visa (if required) to join a trip.Visa & other entry & exit conditions such as currency, arrival/ departure taxes, customs & quarantine regulations change regularly, so make sure you stay up-to-date before you travel.It is also essential that you have any necessary vaccinations & comply with all laws of the countries visited.
What are Contiki’s sustainability credentials?
We believe that travelling sustainably and consciously, matters.Contiki Cares is our commitment to protecting the communities we visit, the wildlife we interact with, and the planet we all share.Our founding partner, the TreadRight Foundation was established 10 years ago as a not-for-profit organisation focused on promoting sustainable tourism within The Travel Corporation’s family of brands.From a giraffe centre in Nairobi and an elephant orphanage in Kenya to a community visit in Shanga, we make sure our African experiences give something back to this incredible continent.
Are flights included in my trip?
International flights to/from the destination your trip starts and ends in are not included in the cost of the trip, and must be purchased separately.You can book these independently if you want to shop around for the best quote, or through your travel agent.Any flights you take during your Contiki are included in the cost of your trip.On certain African trips we use planes to get you from A to B as quickly as possible, and all of this is included.
Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?
It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.
What do the Contiki team do?
People are at the heart of everything we do, and our team is what makes our trips the best.Our worldwide On-Road Team, locally based staff & network of Local Guides are all extensively trained & widely travelled, & are the best in the business.But we know it’s not just about training, it’s about passion & our team have it in their blood.
Your Trip Manager is like your walking, talking guidebook – just for you.They plan your itinerary every day, organise your food and accomodation and book your Free Time Add ons, and because they know everything about where you’re going, you will too.Your Drivers are the experts on getting you from A to B efficiently and safely in Africa.They know their way around like the back of their hands & they’ll drop you at your door & unload your bags for you.Local Guides provide specialist knowledge when you need it, like when you’re on a safari, and will always help you avoid the tourist traps.
What can I do to avoid bed bugs?
Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.
What's not included that I should budget for?
How much spending money you’ll need will depend on the duration of the trip and how much you anticipate spending on personal expenses like alcohol or shopping.Before you travel, it’s also a good idea to read up on and get an idea of the Free Time Add-Ons you think you’ll want to do on trip, as these will form part of your overall budget.We’d advise doing some research on your chosen destinations beforehand, looking at things like:
– Cost of a local lunch
– Cost of a local dinner
– Cost of a local taxi
– Cost of entry to a sightseeing spot
It is strongly advised to have US$ in cash before the start of the trip. Most places let you pay with card, but it is strongly advised to have US$200 – US$300 as sometimes electricity, signal or card machines might not be working in remote places.In all areas of the service industry in Africa, whether it’s restaurants, bars, hotels or taxis, it’s common practice to tip if you feel that the service received has been excellent.The same goes for your Contiki team; if you feel that their service has been exceptional then feel free to tip them.Our travellers often ask what to tip, we suggest 3.00 US$ per person per day.Remember that tipping (& how much you tip) is optional – it’s entirely up to you.
Will I be able to access WiFi on my trip?
There will be WiFi at some lodges and most hotels, but when you’re staying in safari camps you may be off-grid.But when you’re this close to nature, camping under starswept skies, a mobile detox isn’t such a bad thing.You’ll still be able to upload your best snaps as you travel.
History of Egypt
In 1164, King Amalric of Jerusalem invaded Fatimid Egypt, which requested help from Nur ad-Din.
In 1169, Saladin was appointed as the new vizier of Egypt by the Fatimids and two years later he seized power from the family of the last Fatimid caliph, al-‘Āḍid. As the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin established the Ayyubid dynasty, based in Cairo, and aligned Egypt with the Abbasids, who were based in Baghdad. During his reign, Saladin constructed the Cairo Citadel, which served as the seat of the Egyptian government until the mid-19th century.
In 1191, Cyprus was conquered by the English king, Richard the Lionheart, while on his way to take part in the Third Crusade.
In 1250, slave soldiers, known as the Mamluks, seized control of Egypt and like many of their predecessors established Cairo as the capital of their new dynasty.
In 1252, the Ayyubids were overthrown by a group known as the Mamluks, who had previously formed the bulk of the Ayyubid military.
In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.
In 1560 the Tekkiye al-Sulaimaniyah, a mosque and khan for pilgrims on the road to Mecca, was completed to a design by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, and soon afterwards a madrasa was built adjoining it.
In 1572, a pug sounded the alarm that saved Prince William from the approaching Spanish soldiers, and the breed forever after was tied to the royal House of Orange.
In 1685, in the first modern textbook on dentistry (Operator for the Teeth), Charles Allen suggested that the teeth of dogs, baboons, and sheep be used for implantation.
In 1745 Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab began calling for the purification and reform of Islam, and the Wahhabi movement swept across Arabia.
In 1794, the British began using carbon to make sugar white (raw sugar is actually brown).
In 1798, the French under Napoleon – en route to Egypt – took the island on 12 June, without resistance, when the Grand Master of the Order capitulated after deciding that the island could not be defended against the opposing French naval force.
In 1800’s the dog was moved to England as the dog was already famous in Newfoundland.
In 1805, Mohammed Ali, leader of a band of Albanian soldiers, became pasha of Egypt.
In 1807 Maggiolo developed a single-stage gold implant that was to be placed in fresh extraction sockets and allowed to heal passively without loading; however, pain and inflammation resulted.16 At the beginning of the twentieth century, Greenfield17 introduced latticelike precious metal basket implants that were used to support complete dentures and single teeth.
In 1821 the Sennar Sultanate to the north collapsed in the face of an invasion by Egypt under the Ottoman Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
In 1827 Ali Khurshid Pasha led a force through the Dinka lands and in 1830 led an expedition to the junction of the White Nile and the Sobat.
In 1831, one man by the name of Tovery stood before the French Academy of Medicine, took a lethal dose of strychnine, and survived.
In 1831, Tahtawi undertook a career in journalism, education and translation.
In 1835 the breed almost disappeared when sports like bull baiting, bear baiting and dog fighting were outlawed but the increase in popularity and occurrence of dog shows in the mid 1800s helped save them.
In 1841, American painter John Rand invented the collapsible tin paint tube, which allowed for pre-mixed colors to be portable and more convenient to use outside the studio.
In 1851, under pressure from foreign powers, the government of Egypt opened the region to European merchants and missionaries.
In 1866, the Assembly of Delegates was founded to serve as an advisory body for the government.
In 1867, Isma'il visited Paris to attend the Universal Exposition of 1867.
In 1867, Khedive Ali’s grandson, Ismail Pasha, officially became Khedive of Egypt.
In 1869 or 1870, the ruling Sultan of Raheita sold lands surrounding the Bay of Assab to the Rubattino Shipping Company. The area served as a coaling station along the shipping lanes introduced by the recently completed Suez Canal.
In 1873, the U.S.
In 1874 and 1887, the Kennel Club of England and the American Kennel Club first registered them.
In 1875 Ismail sold Egypt’s 44% share in the canal to the British Government.
In 1877, the Maltese was first shown at the Westminster Dog Show, and in 1888, the AKC recognized breed into their toy group.
In 1878, Gordon was replaced by Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer).
In 1880, German dog judges officially recognized the boar hound as a specific breed different from the German Mastiff.
In 1882, violent riots broke out in the city of Alexandria and a colonel in the Egyptian Army named Ahmed Urabi seized the opportunity to incite a nationalist uprising.
In 1883, a French chemist proved charcoal was great for absorbing ingested poisons.
In 1884 Egypt, which had declared independence from the waning Ottoman Empire, had ambitions of restoring its ancient power, and set its sights on East Africa.
In 1884-1885, France expanded its protectorate to include the shores of the Gulf of Tadjoura and the Somaliland.
In 1885 the dogs were recognized by the American Kennel Club.
In 1886 Surgeon Major David Bruce discovered the microbe causing the Malta Fever, and in 1905 Themistocles Zammit discovered the fever’s sources.
In 1891 disorders broke out on the Greek islands; the Jews left in panic.
In 1895, Djibouti, which, not so long ago, was just a peninsula, already had 5,000 inhabitants.
In 1896, Léonce Lagarde became the first governor of the French Somali Coast, a new name for the French dependencies in the region.
In 1899, Mubarak I signed an agreement making Kuwait a British Protectorate, with the sheikhs maintaining local control while putting their foreign policy in the hands of the British, in exchange for military protection from other powers.
In 1902, however, a separate “administrative” boundary was drawn in which the region was placed under Sudanese control, as the residents of the area had closer ties to Khartoum than Cairo.
In 1905 the Heliopolis Oasis Company headed by the Belgian industrialist Édouard Empain and by Boghos Nubar, son of the Egyptian Prime Minister Nubar Pasha built a suburb called Heliopolis ten kilometers from the center of Cairo.
In 1906, the Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement.
In 1909, “The Funny Jungleland Moving Pictures Book” was given to customers in the stores at the time of purchase of two packages of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes.
In 1909, Alfred Widawer, a virtuous and religious man, joined the community.
In 1909, The Funny Jungleland Moving Pictures Book came with the purchase of two packages of corn flakes.
In 1914, Egypt was officially declared a protectorate, and the British changed the Egyptian leader’s name from khedive to sultan.
In 1914, this fiction was ended, and Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.
In 1918, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Egyptian pound was used.
In 1919, during the reign of Sultan Fuad I, a group called the Wafd Party began utilizing demonstrations, strikes, and riots to challenge British control over the country.
In 1920, Banque Misr (Bank of Egypt) was founded by Talaat Pasha Harb as “an Egyptian bank for Egyptians only”, which restricted shareholding to native Egyptians and helped finance various new Egyptian-owned businesses.
In 1930, France recognized Syria as an independent republic but still subject to the mandate.
In 1931, following a visit to Egypt, Syrian Arab nationalist Sati’ al-Husri remarked that “[Egyptians] did not possess an Arab nationalist sentiment; did not accept that Egypt was a part of the Arab lands, and would not acknowledge that the Egyptian people were part of the Arab nation.” The later 1930s would become a formative period for Arab nationalism, a regional nationalism initially based on the efforts of Syrian, Palestinian and Lebanese political intellectuals.
In 1932, a vet from Adrano named Dr.
In 1934, Italy adopted the name “Libya” (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the name of the colony (made up of the three provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan).
In 1934, Italy adopted the name “Libya” (used by the Greeks for all of North Africa, except Egypt) as the official name of the colony (made up of the three provinces of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan).
In 1936, by an Anglo-Egyptian treaty of alliance, all British troops and officials were to be withdrawn, except from the Suez Canal Zone.
In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded.
In 1939, the Lebanese currency was officially separated from that of Syria, though it was still linked to the French franc and remained interchangeable with Syrian money.
In 1940, the Afghan Hound Club of America was admitted to AKC membership and held its first specialty show.
In 1941, British and Free French forces invaded Syria to eliminate Vichy control.
In 1941, following France’s defeat by Nazi Germany, the currency was linked instead to the British pound sterling at a rate of 8.83 Lebanese pounds = 1 pound sterling. A link to the French franc was restored after the war, but was abandoned in 1949.
In 1944, Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal of some aspects of foreign control in 1947.
In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
In 1947, British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed by the Juba Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan.
In 1948, the territory of historic Palestine was divided after a war between Arab states and Israel.
In 1950 Argentina won its first and only World Championship to date, with a squad formed entirely by amateur players, after defeating France (twice), Brazil, Chile, Egypt and the United States in the decisive match.
In 1951, Dr.
In 1952 a military coup installed a revolutionary regime that promoted a combination of socialism and Pan-Arab nationalism.
In 1952, the original Italian Show Champion came to be .
In 1953, the Free Officers Movement abolished the monarchy and formed the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).
In 1954, the RCC demanded that the British and French relinquish control of the Suez Canal.
In 1956, a new constitution was announced and Egypt became a republic; Abdel Nasser was elected president; and the Suez Canal was nationalized.
In 1956, the U.S.
In 1958 Egypt joined with the Republic of Syria to form a state called the United Arab Republic.
In 1958 Kuwait started to build schools in the emirates, including facilities in Ajman and Umm al Qaywayn.
In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United Arab Republic.
In 1958, Egypt and Syria formed the United Arab Republic, with Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt as president.
In 1963, Pauline Brock arrived back home with a Pharaoh Hound by the name of Bahri of Twinley.
In 1964, the ailing Saud was deposed and replaced by the prime minister, Crown Prince Faisal, who gave vocal support but no military help to Egypt in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
In 1965, Sheikh Sabah Al-Salim al-Sabah succeeded to the throne.
In 1967, border tensions between Egypt and Israel led to the Six-Day War.
In 1967, however, after a second war with Arab states, Israel gained control of the West Bank and Gaza territories as well.
In 1967, the first Pharaoh Hound dogs were imported to the United States.
In 1969, Muammar Gaddafi adopted the Egyptian military marching song “Allahu Akbar” as the national anthem of the newly proclaimed Libyan Arab Republic, and later, the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
In 1971, Sadat concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union, but a year later he ordered Soviet advisers to leave.
In 1972 the government of Saudi Arabia demanded tighter rein on its oil industry as well as participation in the oil concessions of foreign companies.
In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights in an attempt to liberate the territory Israel had captured six years earlier.
In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.
In 1973, Sadat launched the 6 October 1973 war with Israel. Egypt’s armed forces achieved initial successes in the Crossing of the Suez Canal and advanced 15 km, reaching the depth of the range of safe coverage of its own air force.
In 1974 the General Assembly reaffirmed the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people to self-determination, national independence, sovereignty, and to return.
In 1974, PLO leader Yasir Arafat addressed the UN General Assembly, the first stateless government to do so.
In 1977, Egypt fought a short border war with Libya.
In 1977, Infitah policies led to massive spontaneous riots (‘Bread Riots’) involving hundreds of thousands of Egyptians when the state announced that it was retiring subsidies on basic foodstuffs.
In 1977, Sadat made a historic visit to Israel leading to the signing of the 1978 peace treaty, which was supported by the vast majority of Egyptians, in exchange for the complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.
In 1977, Sadat made a historic visit to Israel that led to the 1978 Camp David Accords in exchange for the complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.
In 1978 construction began on the Jonglei (Junqalī) Canal, which was planned to bypass Al-Sudd swamp and provide a straight well-defined channel for the Mountain Nile River to flow northward until its junction with the White Nile.
In 1978 the murder of a prominent member of the communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan was blamed on the government.
In 1979, in the wake of the Camp David Accords, Oman was among the few members of the Arab League that did not sever diplomatic relations with Anwar Sadat’s Egypt.
In 1979, peace was concluded between Israel and Egypt, and in 1994, a peace treaty was signed with Jordan.
In 1979, the Pharaoh Hound was accepted into the Miscellaneous Class in the AKC.
In 1979, the Pharaoh was named the national hound of Malta.
In 1980 Israeli exports to Romania amounted to $35 million, while Israel imported from Romania goods worth $48.5 million.
In 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Copts and foreign tourists as well as government officials. Some scholars and authors have credited Islamist writer Sayyid Qutb, who was executed in 1967, as the inspiration for the new wave of attacks.
In 1981, Kuwait became a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon to dismantle the presence of the PLO, a nationalist Palestinian group that had taken refuge there and helped accelerate the Lebanese Civil War.
In 1983, the breed was officially recognized by the AKC.
In 1984 Africa Cup of Nations the team hosted the tournament by finishing in the group stage.
In 1988, Yasir Arafat publicly eschewed terrorism and officially recognized the state of Israel.
In 1990, Algeria hosted the 1990 Africa Cup of Nations for the first time and were strongly considered to win the competition.
In 1992, the issue resurfaced when Sudan allowed an oil company to work off the coast of Hala’ib.
In 1995, DreamWorks signed a co-production deal with Pacific Data Images to form subsidiary PDI, LLC (PDI owned 60% of PDI, LLC, while DreamWorks SKG owned 40%).
In 1997, a terrorist attack on foreign tourists killed 70.
In 1997, foreign direct investment (FDI) was $260 million and from 1998 to 2000 averaged $482 million.
In 1998, the Festival took place under the presidency of one of Egypt’s leading actors, Hussein Fahmy, who was appointed by the Minister of Culture, Farouk Hosni, after the death of Saad El-Din Wahba.
In 2000, General Mills launched a national naming contest, eventually landing on the name "BuzzBee" or "Buzz" for short [ PDF ].
In 2000, the German firm Henkel acquired 60% of the state detergent and cleaning products firm, ENAD, and an Egyptian company bought a second GSM mobile phone license.
In 2001, FDI more than doubled to $1.196 billion thanks mainly to the privatization and sale of one major state enterprise, the El Hadjar steel complex, SIDER, to the Indian steel firm ISPAT, which acquired 70% ownership.
In 2002 the Arab League adopted the Arab Peace Initiative.
In 2002, the Security Council affirmed a vision of two States, Israel and Palestine.
In 2002, the United States obtained the right to use Manas International Airport as an air base for its military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
In 2003, the Egyptian Movement for Change, popularly known as Kifaya, was launched to seek a return to democracy and greater civil liberties.
In 2003, the Kefaya (“Egyptian Movement for Change”), was launched to oppose the Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms and greater civil liberties.
In 2003, the Quartet (US, EU, Russia, and the UN) released a Road Map to a two-State solution.
In 2004 the big tragedy was the Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed 230,000 people.
In 2004, Morocco signed the Agadir Agreement with Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia.
In 2004, Neveu returned to international level with the Guinea national side, that he managed from 2004 to 2006. He then managed Ismaily in Egypt from February to August 2007. He became manager of the DR Congo national side in April 2008. Neveu rejected calls in October 2008 from player Shabani Nonda for him to resign following some poor performances by the national side.
In 2004, oil production totaled an estimated 6,411 barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted for 2,836 barrels per day, from reserves estimated at 7 million barrels, as of 1 January 2005.
In 2004, they instituted measures to boost foreign direct investment and trade by signing a free trade agreement with the United States that became effective in January 2006.
In 2004, Tunsia signed the Agadir Agreement with Jordan, Egypt, and Morocco.
In 2005, Israel completed the withdrawal of all its troops and settlers from the Gaza Strip but it retains control of the airspace, seafront and access – including deliveries of food and other goods – apart from the crossing with Egypt.
In 2005, Israel withdrew its settlers and troops from Gaza while retaining control over its borders, seashore and airspace.
In 2005, President Hosni Mubarak faced unprecedented public criticism when he clamped down on democracy activists challenging his rule.
In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises.
In 2005, then President Mubarak announced in a surprise television broadcast that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election.
In 2005, Tunisia came fourth.
In 2006 Niger qualified for Millennium Challenge Account threshold status, raising the prospect of significant U.S.
In 2008, a DNA study indicated that the Sloughi is a genetically unique population of sighthounds and the genetic sequences it shares with the Basenji, Sica, and Nguni indicate that this breed is, on the maternal side, embedded in Africa, possibly for thousands of years.
In 2008, Senegal finished in 12th position on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance (limited to sub-Saharan Africa until 2008), based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to their citizens.
In 2009, a study on the oral health benefits of green tea was conducted on 940 Japanese men.
In 2009, Egypt attracted US$490 …[more]
In 2010–2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya.
In 2011 a revolution calling for more freedom overthrew Mubarak.
In 2011 President Mahmoud Abbas submitted the application of Palestine for membership in the UN.
In 2012, OSSTEM IMPLANT has introduced number of new products, such as TSIII CA Fixture, TSIII BA Fixture, SmartBuilder, 123 Kit, and ESSET Kit GP-Implant is a professional and innovative company that manufacturers implants, prosthetic parts and tools with more than 15 years of experience in the dentistry field.
In 2013, a cluster of six cases of chikungunya fever was confirmed, but no cases have been reported since then.
In 2013, Dr Shokralla moved to the United States seeking a new journey.
In 2014, civil unrest began mostly in Jerusalem, with anti-Semitic incitement leading Palestinians to launch terrorist stabbing attacks against Israelis that have killed 27, against a backdrop of over 100 Palestinians that have been killed by the Israelis, with the conflict currently ongoing.
In 2014, Rabat published Vision 2020 with the ambitious goal of making Morocco one of the world’s top 20 touristic destinations, as well as a model of sustainable development.
In 2014, the household index for the Aedes aegypti mosquito was reported at 6.5% (above the 5% threshold recommended by the World Health Organization [WHO]) (10).
In 2015, it was reported that more than 12,000 people have been infected with mosquito-borne illnesses.
In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period.
In 2016 the Security Council adopted resolution 2334 on settlements.
In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation.
In 2017 Saudi Arabia led efforts to cut the country off to force it to abandon its alleged support for radical and Islamist groups.
In 2017, a Christmas-time shipment of dogs, including a 6-month-old chihuahua puppy, marked a turning point for the strike team and Operation Dog Catcher.
In 2017, a Japanese container vessel blocked the canal after it ran aground following reported mechanical issues.
In 2017, based on his length of time in the industry, influence on pop culture and social media following, Diab earned the top position in Forbes’ Magazine’s new Arab Celebrity 100 list.
In 2017, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain and Egypt severed diplomatic and economic ties with Qatar, accusing the nation of supporting terrorist organizations groups and overly-close ties to Iran.
In 2019, the CDC announced a temporary ban on dogs from Egypt following the imports of three rabid dogs, including one brought in by a Kansas City-area rescue group.
In 3000 BC Egypt, the same large dogs were observed in Egyptian monuments.
In 559-330 BCE the Achaemenid Dynasty built an empire which at its peak spanned three continents: from Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia in the South, to Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) in the West, to the Balkans and Black Sea in the North, to present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan in the East.
In the 1400s breeders in France started to produce smaller versions of the Poodle, first the Miniature, then the Toy Poodle.
In the 1500s their name changed in some areas who began to call them English Dogges.
In the 1700’s Italian hunters developed this dog for hunting, tracking and pointing game.
In the 1700’s this athletic breed was helpful to fishermen, assisting them to man their nets and collecting any fish that fell out of them.
In the 1700s a visiting Frenchman to Denmark saw the Danish version of the dog and called them Grand Danois and the name stuck despite the Danes having nothing to do with the breed’s development.
In the 1700s Italian hunters developed the Bracco Italiano dog breed for hunting, tracking and pointing game.
In the 1700s, the Bracco Italiano was created by Egyptian hound and Mastiff dog.
In the 1800s, paintings and later actual photographs recorded evidence of Chinese Cresteds in Europe.
In the 1800s, this beautiful, small dog became very popular amongst noble women.
In the 1830s, New York bakers began adding sodium bicarbonate and sour milk to dough to make bread.
In the 1920’s the Labradors were brought to the United States where the breed established a presence.
In the 1930s in Honduras, archaeologists discovered dental implants dating back to about 600 A.
In the 1930s in Honduras, archaeologists discovered dental implants dating back to about 600 A.D.
In the 1930s, the Pharaoh Hound was imported into England but documentation was scarce and inconsistent for the breed.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Egyptian pound was rated almost the same as the British pound sterling.
In the 1960s, DPRK first received shipments of short-range ballistic missiles from its main ally, the Soviet Union.
In the 1960s, Egypt was involved in two wars.
In the 1980s, we were all enjoying C-3PO's, a honey-flavored cereal similar to cereal but shaped like little B's and 8's.
In the 1990s, North Korea sold medium-sized nuclear capable missiles to Pakistan in a deal facilitated by China.
In the 1990s, the biggest trade increases occurred with South Korea, Bulgaria, Egypt, Japan, and China.
On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum that gave the country’s political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people.
On 22–26 July 1952, the Free Officers, a group of disaffected officers in the Egyptian army founded by Gamal Abdel Nasser, and headed by General Muhammad Naguib, initiated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 with the overthrowing King Farouk, whom the military blamed for Egypt’s poor performance in the 1948 War with Israel and lack of progress in fighting poverty, disease, and illiteracy in Egypt. In the following two years, the Free Officers consolidated power, and, following a brief experiment with civilian rule, abrogated the 1953 constitution, and declared Egypt a republic on 18 June 1953, Muhammad Naguib as Egypt’s first President.
On 3 July 2013, the constitution was suspended by order of the Egyptian army.
On 3 July, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he had removed Morsi from power, suspended the constitution and would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections and named Supreme Constitutional Court’s leader, Adly Mansour as acting president.
On 3 July, General Abdul Fatah al-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he had removed President Morsi from power, suspended the constitution and would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections and appointed Supreme Constitutional Court’s leader, Adly Mansour as acting president.
On 8 July 2012, Egypt’s new president Mohamed Morsi announced he was overriding the military edict that dissolved the country’s elected parliament and called lawmakers back into session.
On 8 July 2012, Egypt’s new president Mohamed Morsi announced he was overriding the military edict that dissolved the country’s elected parliament and he called lawmakers back into session.