Overview of Ethiopia

  • Ethiopian buses fit into one of the following categories: the ubiquitous minibuses or matatus (typically Toyota Highace vans that room up to 14 people) that operate throughout the region; small to large sized passenger buses called “Higer bus” (named after the manufacturer) that often travel between regions (“1st level” to “3rd level” indicating the class); luxury buses (Korean modern standard buses) going between the main cities, and the large (often double-jointed) red Addis Ababa city buses.
  • Ethiopia: CIVICUS, the Association for Human Rights in Ethiopia (AHRE), the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), DefendDefenders, PEN International, Article 19, the Consortium of Ethiopian Rights Organizations (CERO), and Access Now examine the Government of Ethiopia’s fulfilment of the rights to the freedoms of association, peaceful assembly and expression, and unwarranted restrictions on HRDs since its previous UPR examination in 2014.
  • Ethiopia has long been a member of international organizations: it became a member of the League of Nations, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, founded the UN headquarters in Africa, was one of the 51 original members of the UN, and is the headquarters for, and one of the founding members of, the former Organisation of African Unity and the current African Union.
  • Ethiopia’s Paris Agreement target is one of the few that the Climate Action Tracker rates as “2°C compatible.” This rating indicates that Ethiopia’s climate plans are within the range of what is considered to be a fair share of global effort; however, these plans are not yet consistent with the Paris Agreement.
  • Ethiopia was never colonized, maintaining its independence during the “scramble for Africa” until the Italian military occupation which was achieved through the use of mustard gas, Italian and colonial manpower, and superior firepower during the buildup to World War II.
  • Ethiopia – the second most populous country in Africa with over 96 million people according to the World Population Review- has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has made impressive strides in eliminating extreme poverty over the last 10 years.
  • Ethiopia is undergoing a transition set off by the 2018 appointment of Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, who came to power after Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn resigned the face of mass protests at which demonstrators demanded greater political rights.
  • Ethiopia, which has clashed in the past with Somalia’s Islamists and considers them a threat to regional security, began amassing troops on Somalia’s border, in support of Somalia’s weak transitional government, led by President Abdullah.
  • Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis) shift to more nocturnal behaviors when persecuted (90), gray wolves have adopted more secretive habits in parts of Europe where people are common, and red foxes are more diurnal where undisturbed (16).
  • Ethiopia’s international connection is unstable: On bad days, even a broadband connection will only deliver dial-up speed, because the whole country’s traffic is running via an undersized backup satellite connection.
  • Continent

    Among the many candidates for a memorable meal, try Yod Abyssinia in Addis.Culinary delights in Ethiopia?Eating Ethiopian-style is a wonderful experience from the sense of community around a shared table to the diverse flavours that make it one of the most varied culinary scenes on the continent.Given that Ethiopian cooking is also known only to a select few beyond the country’s borders, there’s also a wonderful sense of discovery at large as you sit down to your first shiro, doro wat or tibs.Oh yes.


    Being as old as two millenniums, its cultures and traditions hold family as a significant part of Ethiopian life, sometimes even surpassing the significance their careers or businesses might have.The largest city and capital of Ethiopia is Addis Ababa, or Addis Abeba, which has an estimated population of 3.6 million in the city proper and a metro population of more than 4.6 million.

    Do I need to purchase travel insurance before travelling in Ethiopia?

    Absolutely.All passengers travelling with Intrepid are required to purchase travel insurance before the start of their trip.Your travel insurance details will be recorded by your leader on the first day of the trip.Due to the varying nature, availability and cost of health care around the world, travel insurance is very much an essential and necessary part of every journey.

    Egypt / Sudan/ Ethiopia: Will Tshisekedi calm the waters in the GERD dispute?

    DRC’s President Félix Tshisekedi, who took over the chairmanship of the African Union in February, is to host a first round of dialogue between …Cairo, Khartoum and Addis Ababa over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam dispute.

    Can I use my mobile/cell phone while in Ethiopia?

    Mobile phone coverage is quite good in Ethiopia’s urban areas, but less so in rural, remote and mountainous areas.Ensure you have global roaming activated before leaving home if you wish to use your mobile phone.

    Are credit cards accepted widely in Ethiopia?

    Credit cards are accepted only by a few large hotels in Addis Ababa as cash is the main mode of payment in Ethiopia.Ensure you have adequate cash to cover purchases not able to be made on credit.

    Do I need a visa to travel to Ethiopia?

    Most nationalities require a visa for entry to Ethiopia.Please see this website to find your closest embassy or consulate: you are flying into Addis Ababa you can obtain a visa on arrival.You’ll need two passport photos and approximately US$40.You may be asked for proof of a return ticket – please carry your tour notes as proof that you are leaving overland.If you are entering at any border other than Addis Ababa airport you MUST obtain your visa in advance.

    Can cow-free milk nourish the planet?

    In the quest for better worldwide nutrition and a healthier planet, cultured proteins—grown through fermentation rather than feedlots—hold real promise.PATH and partners explore the prospects for animal-free dairy and eggs.

    What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

    How is this conflict affecting Ethiopia and its neighbors?

    Until recently Ethiopia, a close American military ally, was seen as the strategic linchpin of the volatile Horn of Africa.But as the Tigray conflict drags on, analysts worry Ethiopia might become a source of instability.

    How is Eritrea involved?

    Eritrea quickly joined the war on the side of Ethiopia’s central government, firing artillery across the border then sending troops into Tigray, and many of the worst abuses in the region have been blamed on Eritrean soldiers.

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    Is Ethiopia the Next Yugoslavia?

    A country that once seemed to hold great promise for peaceful democratization has descended into conflict.Here’s what could happen next.

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    What are the toilets like in Ethiopia?

    Squat/pit toilets are the standard in Ethiopia, except for western-style flushable toilets that are sometimes available in large hotels and other modern buildings.Carry your own supply of soap and toilet paper, as this is rarely provided.

    Can I drink the water in Ethiopia?

    Tap water isn’t considered safe for tourists to drink.For environmental reasons, try to avoid buying bottled water.Ask your leader and accommodation provider for local advice on where drinking water can be accessed.Also, avoid ice in drinks and peel fruit before eating.

    What is ATM access like in Ethiopia?

    There are a few ATMs that accept foreign cards in Ethiopia, mainly in Addis Ababa and other large cities.Withdrawing cash from ATMs can’t necessarily be relied on, so carrying foreign currency (like US dollars) is recommended.

    Is tipping customary in Ethiopia?

    Tipping isn’t mandatory in Ethiopia but is considered polite in restaurants and bars.It’s up to the individual to choose to tip or not but rounding up a bill for good service or leaving 1-2 birr is appropriate.

    What public holidays are celebrated in Ethiopia?

    Please note these dates are for 2017.For a current list of public holidays in Ethiopia go to: http://www.worldtravelguide.

    How Far Will the Ethiopian-Eritrean Alliance Go?

    Former foes have found a common enemy in the TPLF.

    Why did Ethiopia’s prime minister launch an offensive in Tigray?

    Mr.Abiy has said that he wants to unify the country by increasing the federal government’s power and minimizing the autonomy of regional governments.But Tigray has openly resisted, and other regions and ethnic groups are uneasy with Mr.Abiy’s push for centralization.

    From Canada?

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    Is independence from Ethiopia the TPLF’s endgame in Tigray?

    We speak to a senior TPLF member about the Tigray conflict, and discuss US gun reform with a school shooting survivor.

    Why is Tigray strategically important?

    The people of Tigray, the northernmost region of Ethiopia, make up perhaps 6 percent of the country’s 110 million people yet have enjoyed disproportionate power and influence for nearly three decades.

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    What is the internet access like in Ethiopia?

    Internet cafes can be found in cities and large towns but less so in rural and remote places.

    Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

    It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

    Yasser Abbas: Will there be armed conflict over Nile dam dispute?

    Sudan’s irrigation minister discusses continuing tensions with Ethiopia over the Renaissance Dam’s construction.

    History of Ethiopia

  • In 1940–41, Italian troops briefly occupied British Somaliland
    but were soon defeated by the British, who conquered Italian Somaliland
    and reestablished their authority over British Somaliland.
  • In 1988, both the Ethiopian and Somalian governments, faced by growing
    internal resistance, pledged to respect their border.
  • In 1899 Somali Islamic teacher Muhammad Abdullah Hasan (1856–1920),
    known to the British as “the Mad Mullah,” gathered an army.
  • In 1875 Ismail sold Egypt’s 44% share in the canal to the British Government.
  • In 1884, the emperor moved his capital from Adi Taklay to Asmara, and had three stone buildings built to house his troops and serve as his banquet hall.
  • In 1884-1885, France expanded its protectorate to include the shores of the Gulf of Tadjoura and the Somaliland.
  • In 1889,
    Italy established protectorates over the eastern territories then under
    the nominal rule of the sultans of Obbia and of Alula; and in 1892, the
    sultan of Zanzibar leased concessions along the Indian Ocean coast to
  • In 1890, Italy – a late-comer to the “Scramble for Africa” – conquered Eritrea and Somalia, which became colonies; despite these successes, the economy had significantly worsened and millions of Italians, mainly from the rural South, were forced to emigrate.
  • In 1895, Djibouti, which, not so long ago, was just a peninsula, already had 5,000 inhabitants.
  • In 1896 Francesco Crispi, Prime Minister for the second time, gave order to invade Ethiopia: the badly-led expedition however was massacred at the battle of Adwa.
  • In 1896, Léonce Lagarde became the first governor of the French Somali Coast, a new name for the French dependencies in the region.
  • In 1915, Italy entered the war on the side of the Allies but obtained less territory than it expected in the postwar settlement.
  • In 1922, Benito Mussolini‘s rise to power in Italy brought profound changes to the colonial government in Italian Eritrea.
  • In 1929 Mussolini formed a pact with the Holy See, resulting in the rebirth of an independent state of the Vatican for the Catholic Church in the heart of Rome.
  • In 1932, Djibouti was the first town to be wired to electricity in French Somaliland.
  • In 1936, it became a province of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland.
  • In 1941, British troops routed the Italians, and Haile Selassie returned to Addis Ababa.
  • In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
  • In 1948 a commission led by representatives of the victorious Allied nations wanted to decide the Somalian question once and for all.
  • In 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,[8] the British “returned” the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably ‘protected’ by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on an 1897 treaty in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against plundering by Somali clans.[9] Britain included the proviso that the Somali nomads would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over them.[10] This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over.[10] The stretch of land has since been a considerable source of regional strife.
  • In 1949, when Emperor Haile Selassie was reinstalled to the Ethiopian throne, Britain ceded the Ogaden region to Ethiopia.
  • In 1952, Eritrea was incorporated into Ethiopia.
  • In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule.
  • In 1954, Djibouti played Ethiopia three times: a 10–1 away loss on 1 May, a 2–0 home loss on 1 June and a 2–1 home loss the day after.
  • In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean struggle for independence began after years of peaceful student protests against Ethiopian violation of Eritrean democratic rights and autonomy had culminated in violent repression and the emperor of Ethiopia's dissolution of the federation and declaration of Eritrea as a province of Ethiopia.
  • In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I ended the “federal” arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire.[18] Ethiopia’s biggest ally was the United States.
  • In 1961, the Eritrean war for independence began.
  • In 1968 there seemed to be a brief respite from ominous developments when a telecomunications and trade treaty was worked out with Ethiopia, which was very profitable for both countries, and especially for residents on the border who had been living in a de facto state of emergency since the 1964 cease fire.
  • In 1969 a military coup displaced independent Somalia’s civilian government following the assassination of President Shermaarke by a rival clan member.
  • In 1974, its monarchy was deposed, and replaced with a pro-Soviet military junta, which ruled Ethiopia for 17 years until the end of the Cold War.
  • In 1975, an earlier version of the emblem of Ethiopia was adopted, consisting of a plow on a yellow sunburst surrounded by a wreath.
  • In 1977, Somalia openly backed rebels in the easternmost area of Ethiopia, the Ogaden Desert, which had been seized by Ethiopia at the turn of the century.
  • In 1977, the Somali National Army invaded and attempted to annex the ethnic Somali enclave in the Somali region of Ethiopia, sometimes called the “Ogaden.” This proved to be a fatal miscalculation as the Soviet Union and Cuba backed the new Marxist government of Ethiopia.
  • In 1978, military officers from the Majeerteen clan launched a coup attempt.
  • In 1979, a group of Isaaq expatriates formed the Somali National Movement (SNM), with the goal of overthrowing Barre.
  • In 1988, former U.S.
  • In 1991, after the collapse of the Siyad Barre regime, [3] northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland in the northwestern area of Somalia.
  • In 1991, conflict between the Afars and the Issa-dominated government erupted and the continued warfare has ravaged the country.
  • In 1991, Eritrean and Ethiopian rebels jointly held the Ethiopian capital under siege as the Ethiopian communist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam fled to Zimbabwe, where he lives despite requests for extradition.
  • In 1992, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi requested President Carter’s help to incorporate strong mechanisms for the protection of human rights into the structure of the Ethiopian state.
  • In 1993 Somalia shot down two US helicopters, which ignited a battle that killed hundreds of Somalians.
  • In 1993, a joint venture between the Carter Center’s Agriculture Program and the Sasakawa Africa Association helped Ethiopian farmers improve agricultural production.
  • In 1994 an…
  • In 1995, Greece agreed to recognize the country as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • In 1998 under Majerteen leadership, the region declared autonomy.
  • In 1998, a border war over the town of Badme occurred.
  • In 2000, after three years of insufficient rain, fifty thousand drought victims entered Djibouti.
  • In 2000, The Carter Center was invited to help implement Ethiopia’s national River Blindness Program.
  • In 2001, the 37th summit of the OAU formally adopted the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to address the challenges facing the continent.
  • In 2001, the 37th summit of the OAU formally adopted the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to address the challenges facing the continent.
  • In 2003, in an effort to solve its chronic shortage of food and to lessen its dependence on international aid, Ethiopia began relocating 2 million farmers from their parched highland homes to areas with more fertile soil in the western part of the country.
  • In 2003, the government began to demobilize some of those slated for the first phase; however, the government maintains a "national service" program, which includes most of the male population between 18 and 40 and the female population between 18 and 27.
  • In 2006, Eritrea normalized relations with Sudan and is beginning to open the border to trade between the two countries.
  • In 2007, Gambella reported zero indigenous cases for 12 consecutive months.
  • In 2007, the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative Replication Conference provided the opportunity for ministries of health, education, and science and technology from 10 African governments to learn how EPHTI’s model could help address the severe shortages of health care professionals in their own nations.
  • In 2008, a DNA study indicated that the Sloughi is a genetically unique population of sighthounds and the genetic sequences it shares with the Basenji, Sica, and Nguni indicate that this breed is, on the maternal side, embedded in Africa, possibly for thousands of years.
  • In 2009, Ethiopia had an estimated 135,000 asylum seekers and refugees, mostly from Somalia (64,000), Eritrea (42,000) and Sudan (23,000).
  • In 2010, agriculture was the largest source of emissions, responsible for about half of Ethiopia’s emissions.
  • In 2010, pneumonia accounted for 868,000 deaths in under-5 children, which was 14% of all causes of deaths in children [4].
  • In 2011, Kenyan troops entered Somalia.
  • In 2012, the Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Health, with encouragement from The Carter Center, established a goal of interrupting transmission of the disease nationwide by 2020.
  • In 2014, Uganda’s President Yoweri Museveni and a Chinese transportation company signed a Memorandum of Understanding, to embark at some point on building a light rail system in Kampala, similar to the one recently completed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • In 2015, a study of mitochondrial genome sequences and whole-genome nuclear sequences of African and Eurasian canids indicated that extant wolf-like canids have colonized Africa from Eurasia at least five times throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, which is consistent with fossil evidence suggesting that much of African canid fauna diversity resulted from the immigration of Eurasian ancestors, likely coincident with Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations between arid and humid conditions.
  • In 2015, The Carter Center assisted the Ethiopian government in providing over 15 million treatments in one year, most of which were semiannual, overtaking the Center’s Nigeria office as the largest Mectizan program of The Carter Center.
  • In 2017 IOHK helped the University of Edinburgh to launch Blockchain Technology Laboratory.[19][20][21] In 2019, the Minister of Education of Georgia, Mikheil Batiashvili, and Charles Hoskinson, signed a memorandum of understanding with the Free University of Tbilisi to use Cardano and Atala to build a credential verification system for Georgia.[22] In 2018 Cardano teamed up with Ethiopian government so Cardano can deploy their technology in a variety of industries throughout the country.[23] IOHK, the company behind Cardano, donated $500,000 gift in Ada to the University of Wyoming to supports the development of blockchain technology.[24] Footwear manufacturer New Balance Athletics will use distributed ledger blockchain to track the authenticity of its newest basketball shoe.
  • In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved modernist architecture.[3][4] Asmera was first settled in 800 BC with a population ranging from 100 to 1000.
  • In 2019, Djibouti hosted more than 30,000 refugees and asylum seekers, as well as more than 100,000 migrants, many of whom were transiting through the country.
  • In 2019, Ethiopia GDP was an estimated $91.2 billion (current market exchange rates); real GDP was up by an estimated 9.0%; and the population was 96 million.
  • In 2019, Ethiopia reported eight animal infections; Mali reported nine; Angola reported one. 
  • In 2019, most of the ruling coalition merged to become the Prosperity Party.
  • In 2019, some locust swarms from Yemen and Ethiopia arrived on the Red Sea coastal plains where local breeding occurred during this past winter.
  • In 2020, the country aims to plant another five billion trees starting in mid-June, depending on the spread of the coronavirus.
  • In 2020, the European Union provided over €63.2 million to humanitarian projects in Ethiopia.
  • In the 1950s, the Ethiopian feudal administration under Emperor Haile Selassie sought to annex Eritrea and Italian Somaliland.
  • In the 1960s, a guerrilla warfare campaign by Somali


    (bandits) in Kenya and skirmishes over the Ogaden region resulted in a
    mutual defense agreement against the Somalis by Kenya and Ethiopia.

  • In the 1990s, despite the promises made and diplomatic speeches delivered, disputes between Ethiopian operators and Eritrean managers of the port of Assab had multiplied and had considerably deteriorated relations between the two countries before the border incident of April 1998.
  • On 1 May 1949, the fixture was played for the Emperor Cup in Ethiopia, and the host won 6–0.
  • On 3 February 2003, the African Union authorized an African Mission in Burundi (AMIB), which fielded troops from South Africa, Ethiopia, and Mozambique to safeguard cantonment areas and to provide technical assistance to the disarmament and demobilization process.
  • On 3 November, a military conflict erupted between the Ethiopian federal government and the regional government of Tigray.
  • On 9 March, 2021 Swedish Prime Minister, Löfven, and Spanish Prime Minister, Sanchez, hosted a meeting with the Heads of State and Governments of Costa Rica, Ethiopia, New Zealand, South Africa, representative from Bangladesh, Canada, Jordan, South Korea and Tunisia together with United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres.