Overview of Gabon
Gabon began the tournament with a 3–2 defeat to Senegal on Christmas Day, before being thrashed 6–0 by Cameroon on Boxing Day, finishing bottom of their group. a number of months after the tournament, the Gabonese Football Federation (Federation Gabonaise de Football) was formed to officially oversee the development of the national team and the domestic game. The new association would not have to wait long for their first win, as in their very next match on 14 July 1962 they defeated the Congo 3–1 in their first match on home soil.
Gabon is a member of the United Nations (UN) and a few of its specialized and related agencies, as well as of the World Bank; the IMF; the African Union (AU); the Central African Customs Union/Central African Economic and Monetary Community (UDEAC/CEMAC); EU/ACP association under the Lomé Convention; the Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA); the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC); the Nonaligned Movement; and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS/CEEAC), among others.
Gabon also has an Ecole Normale Supérieure (Higher School of Teacher Training), an Institut National des Sciences de Gestion (National Institut of Management), the Ecole Nationale D’Etudes Forestières at Cap Estérias (National School of Forestry), an Ecole Nationale de Secrétariat (National School of Secretarial Studies), and an Ecole Normale Supérieure de l’Enseignement Technique (Technical Teacher Training School).
Gabon’s national infrastructure master plan (NIMP) involved establishing the country’s first public-works agency l’Agence Nationale des Grands Travaux d’Infrastructures (ANGTI) to deliver a pipeline of priority infrastructure projects, while raising construction standards of safety, quality, and project implementation to serve the nation's approximately 2.1 million people.
Gabon’s reserves of exploitable timber include: okoumé, 100 million cu m (3.5 billion cu ft); ozigo, 25–35 million cu m (882 million–1.2 billion cu ft); ilomba, 20–30 million cu m (706–1,060 million cu ft); azobe, 15–25 million cu m (530–882 million cu ft); and padouk, 10–20 million cu m (350–706 million cu ft).
Gabonese law lacks prohibitions against the use of children in illicit activities and the minimum age for work provisions only apply to children in formal employment relationships, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected by the minimum age for work.
Gabon’s education system is regulated by two ministries: the Ministry of Education, in charge of pre-kindergarten through the last high school grade, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Innovative Technologies, in charge of universities, higher education, and professional schools.
Gabon lacks roads, schools, and adequate health care, yet income from the oil-rich country has lined the pockets of its ruler, who, according to the French weekly L’Autre Afrique, is said to own more real estate in Paris than any other foreign leader.
Gabonese human rights activists and opposition party members claim the Gabonese military killed several dozen people in the city of Port-Gentil, an opposition stronghold, following the announcement of the election results on 2 September 2009.
Gabon covers an area of 267,667 square kilometers (103,346 square miles), of which land comprises 257,667 square kilometers (99,484 square miles) and water occupies 10,000 square kilometers (3,861 square miles).
Ancient rock units are overlain by marine carbonate, lacustrine and continental sedimentary rocks as well as unconsolidated sediments and soils that formed in the last 2.5 million years of the Quaternary.Geologically, Gabon is primarily ancient Archean and Paleoproterozoic igneous and metamorphic basement rock, belonging to the stable continental crust of the Congo Craton, a remnant section of extremely old continental crust.Some formations are more than two billion years old.The rifting apart of the supercontinent Pangaea created rift basins that filled with sediments and formed the hydrocarbons which are now a keystone of the Gabonese economy. Gabon is notable for the Oklo reactor zones, the only known natural nuclear fission reactor on Earth which was active two billion years ago.The site was discovered during uranium mining in the 1970s to supply the French nuclear power industry.
The economy of Gabon is characterized by strong links with France, large foreign investments, dependence on skilled foreign labor, and decline of agriculture. Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa, its reliance on resource extraction industry releasing much of the population from extreme poverty.
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History of Gabon
In 1472, the Portuguese explorers encountered the mouth of the Como River and named it ?Rio de Gabao,?
In 1482, when the Portuguese first landed in what is now northern Angola, they encountered the Kingdom of the Congo, which stretched from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south.
In 1575, Paulo Dias de Novais, a Portuguese explorer founded Luanda as São Paulo de Loanda.
In 1838 and 1841, France established a protectorate over the coastal regions of Gabon by treaties with Gabonese coastal chiefs.
In 1839 and 1841, France established a protectorate over the coast.
In 1839, the French concluded a treaty with Denis, the African king whose authority had extended over the northern Gabon coast.
In 1839, the French founded their first settlement on the left bank of the Gabon estuary and gradually occupied the hinterland during the second half of the 19th century.
In 1839, the French signed a treaty with Denis, the African king whose authority extended over the northern Gabon coast.
In 1846, the Brazilian slave ship L’Elizia, carrying slaves from the Congo, was captured near Loango by the French navy which was tasked with contributing to the British Blockade of Africa.
In 1846, the French captured the slave ship Elizia, and most of the Congolese aboard perished before they could be hospitalized in Dakar.
In 1849, captives released from a captured slave ship founded Libreville.
In 1849, the French captured a slave ship and released the passengers at the mouth of the Komo River.
In 1862–1887, France expanded its control including the interior of the state, and took full sovereignty.
In 1880, Bràzza signed a treaty with the powerful Teke tribal ruler Makoko, bringing the right bank of the Zaire River under French control.
In 1885, the Congress of Berlin recognized French rights over the right bank of the Congo, an area
that Brazza had explored extensively.
In 1890, Gabon formally became a part of French Congo.
In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising its colonies of Middle Congo (modern Congo), Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (modern Central African Republic).
In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising the Middle Congo, Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (the modern Central African Republic).
In 1910 Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa.
In 1910 Gabon became part of French Equatorial Africa and in 1960, Gabon became independent.
In 1910 it was joined with Gabon and the Middle Congo to become French Equatorial Africa.
In 1910 it was organized as a separate colony, part of French Equatorial Africa.
In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1959.
In 1910, Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, a federation that survived until 1958.
In 1931, Gabon, a country of about 400,000 people, had 3237 pupils in elementary school, most of them in the first three grades.
In 1934, another group of American missionaries established work in southern Gabon, where they still labor in cooperation with that church.
In 1937 The Salvation Army spread from Léopoldville to Brazzaville, and in 1953 French Equatorial Africa (now Congo) became a separate command.
In 1940, Free French forces ousted the Vichy government from Gabon.
In 1940, French Equatorial Africa joined the Free French movement and the Allied war effort against the Axis powers.
In 1956, the Republic of Congo and the
other three countries became autonomous members of the French Community.
In 1958 the territory voted to become an autonomous republic within the French Community, and on Aug.
In 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act was enacted, albeit without the specific pain reduction measures that Dr.
In 1966, they formed the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) to harmonize tariffs and to coordinate economic development.
In 1967, M’ba died and Bongo replaced him as president.
In 1967, the constitution was modified to provide for the election of a vice president, but in 1975, the office was abolished and replaced by that of a prime minister.
In 1974, a national company known as SONAGAR was created, 36% owned by the government.
In 1976, cupro-nickel 500-franc coins were introduced.
In 1981 a commercial radio station, Africa No.
In 1981, a commercial radio station, Africa No.
In 1983, the constitution was amended officially to declare Gabon a one-party state.
In 1983, three generals were elected to the central committee of the PDG, the first such admission of the military into high party ranks.
In 1985, the list consisted of all PDG members, chosen by party activists from 268 nominated; only 35 incumbent deputies were retained.
In 1986 Gabon saw its GDP drop by half after a dramatic fall in the world price for oil.
In 1986, depressed oil prices caused a sharp decline in oil earnings, resulting in severe austerity measures in 1986 and 1987.
In 1986, research and development expenditures totaled CFA Fr380 million.
In 1986, there were four French insurance companies represented in Gabon.
In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 29% of college and university enrollments.
In 1987, President Bongo made an official visit to Washington, DC.
In 1990 the government in 1990 made major changes to the political system.
In 1990 the government made major changes to Gabon’s political system.
In 1990 the government made major changes to Gabon’s political system.
In 1990, the government made major changes to Gabon’s political system.
In 1992, Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors.
In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4 percent of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on its debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private creditors.
In 1992, the former monopoly of the Gabonese Labor Confederation (COSYGA) was abolished and disassociated from the ruling Democratic Party of Gabon.
In 1994, approximately 38 percent of the elementary school students were repeating a grade and only 61 percent of the students who began first grade together reached the fifth grade.
In 1995, Gabon withdrew from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), rejoining in 2016.
In 1995-1996, there were 1,147 schools with 4,943 teachers teaching 250,693 students, 50 percent of whom were female.
In 1996 there were an estimated 7,670 kilometers (4,766 miles) of roads, of which only some 634 kilometers (394 miles) were paved.
In 1997 (the latest year for which data was available) the unemployment rate was estimated at 21%.
In 1997 constitutional amendments were adopted to create an appointed Senate, the position of vice president, and to extend the president’s term to 7 years.
In 1997, an IMF mission to Gabon criticized the government for overspending on off-budget items, over-borrowing from the central bank, and slipping on its schedule for privatization and administrative reform.
In 1997, an IMF mission to Gabon criticized the government for
overspending on off-budget items, over-borrowing from the central bank, and slipping on its schedule for privatization and administrative reform.
In 1997, Fay walked more than 3,000 kilometers through intact forest from Congo to the coast of Gabon.
In 1997, it produced a peak of 217,000
barrels per day.
In 1997, the Congo’s government had US$302 million in revenues and US$468 million in expenditures, with a major share of its revenues derived from oil drilling.
In 1997, the petroleum industry was still the dominant sector of the economy, contributing 42.5 percent of GDP when all subsidiary industries are factored in.
In 1997, the petroleum
industry was still the dominant sector of the economy, contributing 42.5
percent of GDP when all subsidiary industries are factored in.
In 1998, Bongo was reelected president for a seven-year term with 66.6% of the votes.
In 1998, Gabon’s merchant marine owned two vessels totaling 13,613 GRT.
In 1999, exports stood at US$2.4 billion, while imports were US$1.2 billion.
In 2000 remittances to Gabon from citizens working abroad totaled $2 million or about $2 per capita.
In 2000, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 21% had adequate sanitation.
In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 40% of household consumption was spent on food, 9% on fuel, 3% on health care, and 7% on education.
In 2002 there were hydroelectric stations at the Kinguélé and Tchimbélé dams on the Mbei River and at the Petite Poubara Dam, near Makokou on the Ogooué.
In 2002 there were only 2,450 hotel rooms with a 70% occupancy rate.
In 2002, electric power output totaled an estimated 1.16 billion kWh, with capacity estimated as of 1 January 2002 at 0.406 million kW.
In 2002, President Omar Bongo Ondimba designated roughly 10% of the nation’s territory to be part of its national park system (with 13 parks in total), one of the largest proportions of nature parkland in the world.
In 2002, the average inflation rate was 1.5%.
In 2002, the government announced a plan to create a system of 13 national parks that would cover about 10% of the nation’s land area.
In 2002, the government announced it would set aside ten percent of its landmass for a system of national parks.
In 2002, the president designated 11 percent of the country as a national park, making Gabon an ecotourism destination.
In 2002, the road network comprised 8,454 kilometers (5,253 miles).
In 2002, there were only about 2,450 hotel rooms.
In 2003 Bongo amended the national constitution to remove any restictions on the number of terms a president is allowed to serve.
In 2003, a change of constitution meant that Bongo could run for office as many times as he wanted and Bongo, now in his 70s, is likely to remain as president for life.
In 2003, about 386,000 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.
In 2003, only about 0.7% of Gabon’s total land area was protected.
In 2003, only about 0.7% of Gabon’s total land area was protected, including three Ramsar wetland sites.
In 2003, there were 386,600 passengers carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.
In 2003, there were an estimated 29 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people.
In 2003, there were an estimated 488 radios and 308 television sets for every 1,000 people.
In 2004 oil output (all of it crude) was estimated to have amounted to 235,500 barrels per day.
In 2004, 2.4 million tons of metallurgical-grade ore were extracted.
In 2004, agricultural imports by Gabon accounted for nearly 19% of all imports.
In 2004, an estimated 2.4 million metric tons of metallurgical-grade ore were extracted, up from 1.95 million metric tons in 2003.
In 2004, Gabon produced about 230,000 tons of cassava, 155,000 tons of yams, 61,800 tons of other roots and tubers, 270,000 tons of plantains, 35,410 tons of vegetables, and 31,000 tons of corn.
In 2004, migrants numbered 18,626, including 13,787 refugees, and 4,839 asylum seekers.
In 2004, the country’s total rail trackage was 894 km (555 mi), all narrow gauge.
In 2004, the government operated two radio stations and another seven were privately owned.
In 2004, the government
operated two radio stations and another seven were privately owned.
In 2004, there remained about 100,000 internally displaced people.
In 2004, there was 0.3 physicians per 1,000 people.
In 2004, there were two government-operated radio stations and seven privately-owned stations.
In 2005 the estimated net migration rate was zero.
In 2005 there were an estimated 212,000 hogs, 195,000 sheep, 90,000 goats, 35,000 head of cattle, and 3.1 million chickens.
In 2005, approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 40% of the population under 15 years of age.
In 2005, Gabon maintained active armed forces numbering 4,700 personnel.
In 2005, Gabon’s gross domestic product (GDP) was $8 billion, or $5,800 per person.
In 2005, the growth in GDP was 2.9%.
In 2005, the net migration rate for the Congo was estimated as -0.17 per 1,000 population.
In 2005, the net migration rate was estimated as zero per 1,000 population, down from 7.9 per 1,000 in 1990.
In 2005, there were an estimated 212,000 hogs, 195,000 sheep, 90,000 goats, 35,000 head of cattle, and 3.1 million chickens.
In 2005, Tunisia came fourth.
In 2010, Bechtel was invited to study the country’s infrastructure priorities and long-term development vision, to deliver a strong, successful and sustainable future for the people of Gabon.
In 2012 Africa Cup of Nations, Gabon co-hosted the tournament as it won their group matches: 2–0 against Niger, 3–2 against Morocco, and 1–0 against Tunisia.
In 2012 there were six active oil rigs in Gabon.
In 2012, Zambia won the African Cup of Nations for the first time after losing in the final twice.
In 2013, Bechtel expanded its international partnership with Junior Achievement® (JA) to include a major new entrepreneurship in business skills training program for hundreds of young people living in Gabon.
In 2016, Aubameyang was named African Footballer of the Year, becoming the first Gabonese player, and second-European born player, to win the award.
In 2018, the use of internet in businesses, in schools and in the home had increased since 2010 from 13 to 62%.
In 2019, criminal law enforcement agencies in Gabon took actions to combat child labor (Table 7).
In 2019, Gabon GDP was an estimated $16.9 billion (current market exchange rates); real GDP was up by an estimated 3.4%; and the population was 2 million.
In 2019, Gabon made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
In 2019, the absence of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in Gabon may have impeded the enforcement of child labor laws.
In 2019, the Ministry of Justice successfully convicted two individuals for child trafficking and exploitation under Gabon’s 2004 child trafficking law.
In the 1880s, the area was under French control.
In the 1980s rising oil revenues provided the Congolese government with the ability to finance large-scale development projects by borrowing against a large share of its future oil income.
On 1 July 2018 the work in Gabon was officially recognised.
On 3 September, Roger Gardet entered Bitam by a ruse.
On 4 July 2013, Aubameyang joined 2012–13 Champions League finalists Borussia Dortmund on a five-year contract. He made his competitive debut for his new club on 27 July 2013 against Bayern Munich in the DFL-Supercup, replacing Jakub Błaszczykowski for the last 18 minutes of Dortmund’s 4–2 victory, assisting Dortmund’s final goal, scored by Marco Reus. On 10 August, Aubameyang made his Bundesliga debut and scored a hat-trick against FC Augsburg, including a goal from his first shot in the league.
On 4 September 2006, the Confederation of African Football (CAF) approved a compromise between rival countries to host the Africa Cup of Nations after it ruled out Nigeria.
On 5 February 2012, he set up the opening goal for his team and hit the post in the quarter-final against Mali.
On 5 July Gabon gained another impressive victory, beating Rwanda 3–0.
On 7 January 2019, soldiers in Gabon launched a coup d’etat attempt, but the situation was all the time under control and the coup attempt failed.
On 9 July they faced Group A winners the Congo, and were narrowly beaten 1–0.