Overview of Ireland

  • Ireland is now one of the least forested countries in Europe.[145][146] Until the end of the Middle Ages, Ireland was heavily forested with native trees which include oak, ash, hazel, birch, alder, willow, aspen, rowan, yew and Scots pine.[147] Only about 10% of Ireland today is woodland;[9] most of this is non-native conifer plantations, and only 2% is native woodland.[10][11] In Europe, the average woodland cover is over 33%.[9] In the Republic, about 389,356 hectares (3,893.56 km2) is owned by the state, mainly by the forestry service Coillte.[9] Remnants of native forest can be found scattered around the island, in particular in the Killarney National Park.
  • Ireland’s northwestern corner is an untamed collection of soaring cliffs (the tallest in Europe), lonely, sheep-speckled headlands and, between them, secluded coves and long stretches of white, powdery sand – among them, in the county’s southwest, is Rossnowlagh, one of Europe’s premier surf beaches and a hotspot for big-wave surfers.
  • Ireland has nine universities, seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland, including Trinity College, Dublin and the University College Dublin, as well as numerous third-level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University, the Open University in Ireland.
  • Ireland is also renowned for its wealth of folklore, from tales of tiny leprechauns with hidden pots of gold to that of the patron saint, Patrick, with his legendary ridding the island of snakes and his reputed use of the three-leaved shamrock as a symbol for the Christian Trinity.
  • Ireland experienced at least two general glaciations—one covering most of the country and the other exseeming as far south as a line linking Limerick, Cashel, and Dublin—and the characteristic diversity of Irish scenery owes much to this glacial influence.
  • Ireland added the United States, Canada, Belgium, France and Italy to its list of countries where arrivals will be subject to mandatory hotel quarantine, tightening a few of Europe's toughest travel restrictions to try to stop the spread of COVID-19.
  • Ireland has an extensive network of electric vehicle chargepoints and DC Rapid chargers, with a few form of charging available in most town/villages, at most hotels and attractions and rapid chargers every ~25km on major routes.
  • Ireland's Caelan Doris is unlikely to return for the remainder of the Six Nations after coach Andy Farrell said the Leinster back-rower would be out for the "foreseeable future" because of concussion symptoms.
  • Ireland’s culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences (chiefly Gaelic culture, Anglicisation, Americanisation and aspects of broader European culture).
  • Ireland introduced rounding for cash payments in 2015 which has resulted in the the almost complete abolition of the 1 and 2 cent coins (although these coins still remain legal seemer for payment).
  • Continent

    By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels caused by ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain.[16] Later, around 6000 BC, Great Britain became separated from continental Europe.[17] The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare.[14] By about 8000 BC, more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island.[18]
    During the last glacial period, and until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice.Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.


    However, agriculture drives current land use patterns in Ireland, limiting natural habitat preserves,[143] particularly for larger wild mammals with greater territorial needs.Several different habitat types are found in Ireland, including farmland, open woodland, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, conifer plantations, peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats.With no large apex predators in Ireland other than humans and dogs, such populations of animals as semi-wild deer that cannot be controlled by smaller predators, such as the fox, are controlled by annual culling.


    Additional insurance, known as Super Collision Damage Waiver, can be purchased to protect yourself against this excess when picking up the car.Car rentals in Ireland comes with the minimum insurance which will cover the car, but leave you with an excess deductible in the case of an accident.Most car rental companies in Ireland apply a minimum age of 25 in order to rent a car, but in many cases you will need to be 28 in order to rent a full-size car.Renting a car in Ireland is very similar to the processes elsewhere in that you need a credit card in your own name and a full driver’s license for a minimum of two years without endorsement.There is no shortage of car rental companies in Ireland with all of the major airports, cities, major towns and ports throughout Ireland being well catered for.

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    Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

    It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries.Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

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    Ireland is a city break, adventure holiday and detoxing retreat all wrapped up in an epic road trip.Just mix and match for your perfect holiday.

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    Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance.See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them.For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs.

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    Planning a trip to Ireland? Here’s how to check if you need a visa before setting off on your adventure.

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    How much does Ireland pay and receive?

    How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means.The larger your country’s economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.The EU budget doesn’t aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.

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    History of Ireland

  • In 1066, the Normans invaded England from France and after its conquest, seized large parts of Wales, conquered much of Ireland and were invited to settle in Scotland, bringing to each country feudalism on the Northern French model and Norman-French culture.
  • In 1155 Pope Adrian IV issued the papal bull Laudabiliter giving the Norman King Henry II of England lordship over Ireland.
  • In 1166, Mac Murrough had fled to Anjou, France, following a war involving Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, of Breifne, and sought the assistance of the Angevin King Henry II, in recapturing his kingdom.
  • In 1171, Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition.
  • In 1171, Henry II of England was acknowledged ?Lord of Ireland,?
  • In 1172, Pope Alexander III further encouraged Henry to advance the integration of the Irish Church with Rome.
  • In 1500s England, most gentlemen had packs of “hounds” for hunting.
  • In 1532, Henry VIII broke with Papal authority.
  • In 1603, the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots, inherited the crowns of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal, and religious institutions.
  • In 1607, England built an establishment in Virginia (Jamestown), in what was to become the United States of America.
  • In 1646, Charles I surrendered.
  • In 1652, Oliver Cromwell, concerned that the breed might disappear and that the wolf population might become resurgent, decreed that each county of Ireland must keep 24 Wolfhounds in order to keep the wolf at bay.
  • In 1684 the town was burned to the ground during the Raid on Charles Town.
  • In 1707 the parliaments of England and Scotland (under English pressure) passed the Acts of Union (1707) abolishing a separate Scottish Parliament, although significant support for Scottish independence remains to this day.
  • In 1761, this breed
    became popular in England’s royal circles after the Princess Sophie Charlotte
    brought her two Pomeranians with her when she married the future King George III.
  • In 1782, Poynings’ Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since 1495.
  • In 1787 a new design of reverse featuring a spade-shaped shield was introduced, with the same legend; this has become known as the spade guinea.
  • In 1796, the Dutch scholar Isaac Titsingh became the first person to bring a book written in Korean to the Western world.
  • In 1798, members of the Protestant Dissenter tradition (mainly Presbyterian) made common cause with Roman Catholics in a republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen, with the aim of creating an independent Ireland.
  • In 1800, the British and Irish parliaments both passed Acts of Union that, with effect from 1 January 1801, merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain to create a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[70]
  • In 1801, after both the British and Irish parliaments (under British pressure) passed the Acts of Union (1801), the enlarged kingdom became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (UK).
  • In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • In 1835 these “sports” were prohibited so people just started to fight dogs against each other.
  • In 1840, a man named Thomas Hall crossed some blue merle Smooth Highland Collies with dingoes to create a breed known as the ‘Hall’s Heelers.’ These were crossed with the Bull Terrier in the 1870’s, making the breed more aggressive, and later with the Dalmatian for increased ‘carriage’ capability—the ability to run alongside horses.
  • In 1841, 0.25% of the population of England and Wales was born in a foreign country.
  • In 1862, Champion Palmerston was born in Ireland.
  • In 1862, one particular Irish Setter was born with a longer head and more slender build.
  • In 1873 Dublin’s dog show gave Irish Terriers a separate class, and one in Glasgow in 1875 was when they first appeared under the name Irish Terrier.
  • In 1875 it was one of the most popular sporting dogs in Britain and America, but today is much rarer.
  • In 1875, Scotland records the first showing of this Terrier as a recognized breed.
  • In 1875, the Irish terrier was first shown in dog shows all over Ireland.
  • In 1879, the wolfhound had its first debut at a dog show in Dublin.
  • In 1880 there was 1 Bigo family living in Kentucky.
  • In 1881 the American Spaniel Club was formed and included many types of Spaniels.
  • In 1885, the first breed club was formed for Irish Wolfhounds.
  • In 1898, the American Pit Bull Terrier became the first breed to be registered with the newly-formed United Kennel Club.Size
  • In 1902 a hound was first presented to the Irish Guards as a mascot.
  • In 1920 the island was effectively partitioned with the creation of Northern Ireland, a six-county area with devolved powers within the United Kingdom, whereas under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, the other 26 counties became the Irish Free State, a self-governing dominion within the British Commonwealth and Empire.
  • In 1921, a treaty was concluded between the British Government and a delegation of Irish leaders.
  • In 1921, following an incident in which, despite an earlier promise, the IFA moved an Irish Cup semi-final replay from Dublin to Belfast,[207] Dublin-based clubs broke away to form the Football Association of the Irish Free State.
  • In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
  • In 1922 the United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club was founded.
  • In 1922, the United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club was founded.
  • In 1925 the union designed their own flag, incorporating the arms of the four provinces.[5]
  • In 1926 road sign standards similar to those used in the UK at the time were adopted.[8] Law requires that the signs be written in both Irish and English.
  • In 1928, the first Shih Tzus, a male and female pair, were brought to England from Peking by Lady Brownrigg, the wife of the quartermaster general of the north China command.
  • In 1928, the most expensive dog breeds in 2020 the Royal Canadian Mounted police ( RCMP ) dog of!
  • In 1931, the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) resulted in the Spanish Civil War that would be the prelude of World War II.
  • In 1933, a Mrs.
  • In 1933, the Glen of Imaal Terrier Club of Ireland was begun, and in 1934, the Glen was accepted for registration by the Irish Kennel Club.
  • In 1937 the southern state passed a new constitution that offered a more robust expression of sovereignty, and in 1949 it formally left the Commonwealth as the Republic of Ireland.
  • In 1937 they were granted official breed status in Ireland.
  • In 1937, a new constitution changed the nation’s name to ire.
  • In 1943, the British Kennel Club recognised the breed in the UK as well.
  • In 1948 a working party chaired by the Cabinet Secretary recommended that the country’s name be changed to the “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ulster”.[10] However, the prime minister did not favour the change and it was not made.[11]
  • In 1948, De Valera was defeated by John A.
  • In 1949 a Dr.
  • In 1949 the Irish Free State became “Ireland” (a.k.a.
  • In 1949 the Irish Free State became “Ireland”, also known as the Republic of Ireland, and withdrew from the British Commonwealth.
  • In 1950, FIFA directed the associations only to select players from within their respective territories and, in 1953, directed that the FAI’s team be known only as “Republic of Ireland” and that the IFA’s team be known as “Northern Ireland” (with certain exceptions).
  • In 1956, road signs in the Republic were changed from the UK standard with the adoption of US-style “diamond” signs for many road hazard warnings (junctions, bends, railway crossings, traffic lights).[9] Some domestic signs were also invented, such as the keep-left sign (a black curved arrow pointing to the upper-left, although some are similar to the European “white arrow on blue disk” signs), while some other signs are not widely adopted outside Ireland, such as the no-entry sign (a black arrow pointing ahead in a white circle with a red slashed circumference).
  • In 1969, the paramilitary Provisional IRA, which favoured the creation of a united Ireland, emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the “British occupation of the six counties”.[citation needed]
  • In 1970, the first Wheaten were imported to Australia by Anubis Kennels.
  • In 1973 it was recognized by the AKC.
  • In 1973 the AKC granted recognition.
  • In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same.
  • In 1973, Northern Ireland had a referendum on Irish reunification, though the result was in favour of the United Kingdom and the poll was boycotted by Nationalists.
  • In 1973, the breed was also recognized by the AKC (American Kennel Club).
  • In 1973, the crew from Pisces – a notable deep-sea submarine that sunk off the coast of Ireland – was saved by a remotely operated vehicle.
  • In 1973, they were recognised by the American Kennel Club.
  • In 1973, they were recognized by the American Kennel Club.
  • In 1974, the national team enjoyed one of their most famous victories when they beat Northern Ireland 1–0 in Nicosia.
  • In 1977, there were 453 households affiliated with the synagogue in north Belfast, Northern Ireland’s only Jewish house of worship.
  • In 1980 England gave the Glen of Imaal Terrier full breed status in its registry.
  • In 1983, there were 312.
  • In 1984, Algeria took third place in the 1984 Africa Cup of Nations in Ivory Coast.
  • In 1989 they drew 1–1 with France in the World Cup qualifying match.
  • In 1993 10% of the UK was forested, 46% used for pastures and 25% cultivated for agriculture.
  • In 1993, the Irish and British governments signed a joint peace initiative (the Downing Street Declaration), which affirmed Northern Ireland’s right to self-determination.
  • In 1998, hope for a solution to the troubles in Northern Ireland seemed palpable.
  • In 1999, German shepherd dogs were third on the American Kennel Club’s list of the Top 50 Breeds.
  • In 2000, it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.[90] Historian R.
  • In 2001, Intrade launched in Ireland.
  • In 2001, Latvia manager Gary Johnson resigned after failing to beat San Marino in a World Cup qualifier.[34] The Republic of Ireland’s 2–1 win in February 2007 (due to a last-second goal) resulted in scathing press criticism.[35]
  • In 2002, palliative care teams were consulted in 19% of euthanasia cases, but by 2007 such involvement had declined to 9% of cases.
  • In 2002, the 380 ml bottles of EJ-10 were recalled in Ireland after it was discovered it contained unacceptable levels of benzene.[17]
  • In 2003 it represented 34% of total sports attendances at events in Ireland and abroad, followed by hurling at 23%, soccer at 16% and rugby at 8%.[201] The All-Ireland Football Final is the most watched event in the sporting calendar.[202] Soccer is the most widely played team game on the island and the most popular in Northern Ireland.[201][203]
  • In 2003, a similar Irish website, Tradesports even accepted bets on the date of the Saddam Hussein capture during the Iraq War, and with the apprehension imminent, the highest bets “guessed” the capture date rather swiftly.
  • In 2003, rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK.
  • In 2005, however, the IRA renounced armed struggle, and peace again seemed possible.
  • In 2005, there were some 1,300,000 pigs, 580,000 head of cattle, 316,000 sheep, 9,000 horses, and 5,600,000 chickens.
  • In 2006, 10% of the population (420,000 people) were foreign nationals, while 24% of births were to mothers born outside of the country.
  • In 2006, former president Taylor, in exile in Nigeria, was turned over to an international court in The Hague to face trial on charges of crimes against humanity for supporting rebel troops in Sierra Leone’s brutal civil war that claimed the lives of about 300,000 people in the 1990s.
  • In 2006, the Kennel Club recognised the Dandie Dinmont Terrier as one of the rarest dog breeds native to the British Isles, putting it on a new list of Vulnerable Native Breeds.
  • In 2006, the Kennel Club recognized the Dandie Dinmont Terrier as one of the rarest dog breeds native to the British Isles, putting it on a new list of Vulnerable Native Breeds.
  • In 2008 Kenneth Egan won a silver medal in the Beijing Games.[213] Paddy Barnes secured bronze in those games and gold in the 2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships (where Ireland came 2nd in the overall medal table) and 2010 Commonwealth Games.
  • In 2010, Graeme McDowell became the first Irish golfer to win the U.S.
  • In 2011, Ørsted estimated that while offshore wind turbines were not yet competitive with fossil fuels, they would be in 15 years.
  • In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain.
  • In 2012, Australia became the first country to implement laws requiring plain (standardized) packaging of tobacco products.
  • In 2014, 55% of Scottish voters rejected leaving the UK in an independence referendum.
  • In 2015, New York-based FXCM Inc.
  • In 2015, opinion polls leading up to the marriage equality referendum repeatedly showed, almost without variation, that about 75% of Irish people supported gay marriage rights.
  • In 2016, research by scientists using emerging paleogenomics techniques proved effective for sequencing the genome of a 5,000-year-old ancient dog from Ireland.
  • In 2017 over 27% of revenues came from products, while over 21% from financial services and over 19% of communications, media and technology.
  • In 2017, the board of the Liberia Electricity Corporation contracted for a management services contract with a subsidiary of the Energy Services Board of Ireland, Ireland’s electric utility operator.
  • In 2017, the National Archives, in partnership with the Irish Manuscripts Commission, began a survey of archival material salvaged from the Public Record Office of Ireland, following the destruction of the record treasury during the Civil War in 1922.
  • In 2018 Patricia wrote Bumpfizzle the Best on Planet Earth, which was chosen as the Dublin UNESCO Citywide Read 2019.
  • In 2018, the Alberta Dental Association and College introduced Alberta's first dental fee guide in 20 years.
  • In 2018, they returned to Dinamo Stadium, which was re-opened after major renovation.
  • In 2018, Victoria passed a bill that gives short-stay accommodation providers and their neighbors more power and stipulates fines of up to AU$1,100 for guests who commit certain conduct breaches, including creating unreasonable noise or behaving badly; causing a health, safety, or security hazard; damaging common property; and obstructing a resident from using their property.
  • In 2019 a male Belgian Malinois Conan was used during the Barisha raid to chase Abu Bakr al Baghdadi.
  • In 2020, a fifteen-year-old Irish boy died after ingesting nitrous oxide,[19] leading to Ireland’s Health Service Executive classing it as a dangerous drug.[20]
  • In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, and was extended during the 18th century.
  • In the 1700s, fox hunting became popular in England, and the Beagle fell out of favor as the larger Foxhound became the dog of choice.
  • In the 1700s, fox hunting became popular in England, and the Beagle was supplanted by the larger Foxhound.
  • In the 1700s, the Irish Setter boasted a bicolor coat of red and white, and it had shorter legs.
  • In the 1800s the Irish Water Spaniel was popular in the United States as a duck hunting dog.
  • In the 1800s they were imported to America and there they were bred to be smaller.
  • In the 1830s, a sportsman named Justin McCarthy took it upon himself to refine the breed and develop one, distinct type.
  • In the 1830s, hounds imported from Ireland were crossbred with the American Foxhound to increase their speed and stamina.
  • In the 1840s, prior to the Irish Potato Famine, the population of Ireland was as high as 6.5 million, much higher than today.
  • In the 1880s he went to the US.
  • In the 1930s when Great Danes had their ears cropped, after the surgery, two devices called Easter bonnets were fitted to their ears to make them stand up.
  • In the 1930s when Great Danes had their ears cropped, after the surgery, two devices called Easter bonnets were fitted to their ears to make them stand up.[25] Today, the practice is common in the United States, but much less common in Europe.
  • In the 1930s, technological advancements in fishing nearly caused the extinction of Portuguese Water Dogs.
  • In the 1940s and 1950s, they were largely widespread because they were able to run very fast.
  • In the 1960s the first litter of Glen of Imaal Terriers was recorded.
  • In the 1970s, the first Wheatens were imported into Australia by Anubis Kennels.
  • In the 1990’s, bloodlines were introduced from England, Wales, Ireland, Canada and other hunts in the US This introduction of new hounds has provided the Iroquois Hunt with a faster, stronger pack with a greater stamina for the coyote.
  • On 1 August 2008, the IAEA approved the India Safeguards Agreement[49] and on 6 September 2008, India was granted the waiver at the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) meeting held in Vienna, Austria.
  • On 2 September 2006, Eiður scored in a 3–0 away victory over Northern Ireland in UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying, pulling him level with Ríkharður Jónsson’s record of 17 international goals (the latter had held the record since his third goal in 1948, and totalled 17 in 33 matches from 1947 to 1965).
  • On 3 September 2010, as part of the Euro 2012 qualifiers, Cyprus claimed a historic result against Portugal after drawing 4–4 in Guimarães.
  • On 5 September 2009, Montenegro took an early lead against Bulgaria in Sofia with Stevan Jovetić putting them 1–0 up, only for Bulgaria to recover and win 4–1.
  • On 6 January 2016 it was announced that Farrell would take up the role of Ireland defence coach after the completion of the 2016 Six Nations Championship.
  • On 6 September 2008, Montenegro played their first World Cup qualifier against Bulgaria at the Podgorica City Stadium.
  • On 7 October 2006, as part of the Euro 2008 qualifiers, Cyprus caused a major upset by beating the Republic of Ireland 5–2 in New GSP Stadium in Nicosia, with Michalis Konstantinou and Constantinos Charalambidis each scoring two goals and Alexandros Garpozis one goal.
  • On 9 August 2016, after the departure of Roberto Mancini, De Boer signed a three-year contract with Internazionale for the start of the 2016–17 season.[35] De Boer’s first match in charge was Inter’s final pre-season friendly, a 2–0 win against Celtic on 13 August, played on neutral ground at Thomond Park, Republic of Ireland.[36]