Overview of Kleros

  • Kleros (fundada como Coopérative Kleros, en 7 de abril de 2017 en Paris, Francia) es una cooperativa que desarrolla un protocolo basado en la blockchain de Ethereum, en la que mediante aplicaciones descentralizadas resuelven disputas surgidas de cualquier tipo de contratos valiéndose del arbitraje de terceros, que son guiados por incentivos económicos para llegan a una decisión.
  • Kleros has built economic incentives so that owners of PNK tokens can hope for a profit through their work (by being a Juror hence earning arbitration fees) or by betting on the growth of the Kleros project and thus of the arbitration instances.
  • Kleros is a new blockchain-based arbitration platform that can be used to resolve disputes in the global, digital, decentralized economy which can’t be easily and affordably solved by state courts or other existing dispute resolution methods.
  • Kleros’ potential also includes content curation for applications which include fake news detection and fighting hate speech online, as well as oracle applications with the potential to secure a large number of contracts in insurance and finance.
  • Kleros utiliza el punto Schelling como incentivo económico, dado que cada jurado debe evaluar las evidencias presentadas en el caso y a partir de allí pensar qué decisión tomará los demás jurados, esto sin poder comunicarse entre ellos.
  • Kleros is bringing human intelligence to the smart contracts that run along the blockchain, since they are not smart enough to deliver subjective judgments, nor can they include elements from outside the blockchain on which they exist.
  • Kleros’ system relies on concepts from game theory, cryptography and blockchain technology to gather evidence around a claim, select jurors and provide incentives for those jurors to make honest decisions.
  • Kleros posee varias cortes abiertas (General, Blockchain no técnico, Blockchain técnico, entre otros), en el cual las personas depositan sus pinakions con el fin de ser designados jurados.
  • Kleros has developed a solution to decentralize the token listing process on crypto exchanges, with Ethfinex (a spinoff of Bitfinex) being the first exchange to implement the solution.
  • Kleros is regarded as a well-known and respected Ethereum project, having demonstrated the highest degree of effective management and development in delivering their roadmap promises.
  • Blockchain

    The rise of globalization and the digital economy as a result of the connectivity that the Internet affords has created an entirely new digital realm that has surpassed modern geopolitical jurisdictions.Kleros, a new decentralized application built on top of Ethereum, aims to provide the solution to the the inevitable disputes that will arise in this global digital medium through leveraging the power of blockchain and game theory mechanics.


    Coopérative Kleros, the company that develops the Kleros software and crypto network, makes money by the sale of the PNK tokens that users need to become jurors in the platform and earn arbitration fees.When lots of people use Kleros (because there are lots of disputes to decide), there will be a very high demand for PNK.And the Cooperative sells PNK.That’s the business model.


    By building this decentralized solution, Kleros has also created another way for knowledgable cryptocurrency enthusiasts to support the ecosystem and profit in the process.

    Are Initial Coin Offerings Worth It?

    Initial coin offerings are worth it for investors who don’t mind the speculative risk of volatile, new cryptocurrency markets.If you participate, try not to invest more than you can afford to lose.

    Can you really trust a decision made by a bunch of anonymous people on the Internet?

    Satoshi Nakamoto taught us that a number of anonymous computers who do not trust each can still reach consensus, provided incentives are correctly structured.Kleros extends this principle to human decision making.A number of anonymous jurors who do not trust each other can reach consensus on a right decision, provided incentives are correctly structured.To learn more about the incentive system, read our white paper.

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    Does a party who wants to have a case adjudicated need to have pinakion?

    No, only jurors will need pinakion in order to be drawn.Parties don’t even need to know what a pinakion is.

    Hello! What’s your background, and what are you working on?

    I’m Federico Ast, CEO at Kleros.I’m from Buenos Aires.Studied economics and philosophy in the university.I started my early career in online media, so my work was always connected to the internet.From a young age, I was interested in technology.And crypto comes quite natural for Argentinians because of all the problems the country had.So: technology + Argentina + economics/philosophy background = interest in crypto.

    How are jurors selected and how do you make sure they do honest work?

    Kleros relies on game theory, cryptography and blockchain for securing evidence, selecting jurors and providing them the incentives to make honest decisions.The protocol token (the pinakion, PNK) represents the right of users to be drawn randomly as jurors.Incentives are based on a game theoretical concept known as Schelling Point, developed by Thomas Schelling, Nobel Prize in Economics 2005.The fundamental insight is that jurors voting coherently with the majority should be rewarded.Jurors voting incoherently should be punished.Users doing high quality and honest work will make money.Users doing poor quality or dishonest work will lose money.

    How can you get vouched for if you don't know anyone on POH in real-life?

    I was curious as to how vouching goes if you need a registered user to vouch for you but you do not know anyone on POH in real-life.It seems like a feedback loop of just friends getting other friends onto it and everyone else is stuck on the side-lines.I am getting worried that I just wasted over $400 and will never get vouched for.I thought other users just watch submission videos and verify that it looks legit, is a human, and that the ETH address assigned to the account matches the address displayed in the video.I do not know anyone in real-life that is on Proof-of-Humanity.

    How does the enforcement work? What if the loser does not want to abide by the decision?

    Kleros is a voluntary opt-in system, which means that parties have to accept it beforehand.Enforcement mechanisms will depend on the use case.In e-commerce, for example, the buyer can make a payment to a smart contract or an escrow account.If there is no dispute, money is released to the seller.If a dispute arises, Kleros will make the decision.Buyer and seller cannot avoid enforcement because funds are held in escrow.In other cases, decisions could be enforced by a Kleros partner.Imagine a social media platform using Kleros to punish abuse.Kleros jury will decide whether abuse existed in a specific case.Then, the social media platform enforces the decision by taking reputation points away from the abuser.In this case, the use of the platform automatically implies accepting Kleros as dispute resolution mechanism.

    How Is the Kleros Network Secured?

    Kleros relies on cryptography and blockchain for securing the evidence, selecting the jurors and incentivizing honest decisions.The protocol token represents the right of users to be drawn randomly as jurors.Since PNK is an ERC20 token, it can be stored on many offline or desktop crypto wallets that support Ethereum, allowing for a high level of security.

    How is the number of jurors decided?

    The number of jurors is decided by the parties.When they create the contract, they may decide to have one, three, five or any number of jurors.If one of the parties is not satisfied by a decision, it can appeal.The case will be reviewed by a new tribunal.The appealing party will be charged for the arbitration fee for the new jurors.

    How long until I get a Voucher?

    I made an account yesterday and I still haven’t received a voucher.I’m scared I’m gonna lose my eth deposit.

    How Many Kleros (PNK) Coins Are There in Circulation?

    Kleros (PNK) has a circulating supply of 599,684,715 PNK as of February 2021, with no maximum supply data available at the time.

    How many pinakion will exist?

    The supply of pinakion is fixed at 1,000,000,000 units.

    Is the identity of jurors revealed?

    Since decisions made in Kleros affect the allocation of resources, there is an incentive for parties to try to bribe or intimidate the tribunal.Anonimity is intended to protect jurors from intimidation and retaliation.It also simplifies the process of users becoming jurors and avoids the costs of identity verification.By providing a secure environment and simplifying the selection process, Kleros greatly enlarges the pool of potential jurors.This results in lower arbitration costs and the democratization of access to justice.

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    What are the next steps for Kleros?

    The Kleros team recently announced its first crypto-economic experience to test the robustness of their decentralized dispute resolution layer through a community experience: the Doge List.

    What are your goals for the future?

    The main goal is to get more adoption.We already know Kleros works.Now we need people to use it.So if you’re reading this and you’re building a decentralized platform which has (or may have) disputes, connect with us.You can use Kleros to solve your problem.The main challenge is to create more awareness about what Kleros is, how it works, and what is the problem it solves.

    What happens with activated pinakion tokens?

    After a user activated them to be drawn in a subcourt, tokens are frozen until the court session ends.If the juror has voted incoherently with the majority, he will lose part of the tokens.If the juror has voted coherently with the majority, he will win some tokens (these tokens will be lost by jurors having voted incoherently).But the total amount of pinakion stay the same.They are not destroyed.

    What is Kleros (PNK)?

    On July 15th, 2018, the Kleros IICO successfully raised 5793.58 ETH (2,3M€ at current price valuation) after a two-month fundraising, this IICO round issued 16% of the PNK token supply to around 220 investors.  Kleros was the first project in the world to use the concept of interactive coin offering shared by Vitalik Buterin, Jason Teutsch and Christopher Brown.

    What Is Kleros (PNK)?

    Kleros (PNK) is a decentralized dispute resolution project that launched in July 2018.It is an open-source online dispute resolution protocol that uses blockchain and crowdsourcing to adjudicate disputes fairly.

    What is Kleros?

    Blockchain Dispute Resolution Layer that provides fast,
    secure and affordable arbitration for virtually everything.

    What is Kleros?

    Kleros is a decentralized dispute resolution protocol for use on smart contract platforms, which has been implemented on Ethereum.

    What Is the Kleros Project?

    Kleros is a decentralized dispute resolution project, this project is part of the “structural” projects related to decentralized applications (Dapps).Kleros offers a middleman service for Dapps and their users.If the service provided by the application does not create a dispute, Kleros only acts as a trustless third-party service for payment (escrow).

    What Makes Kleros Unique?

    Kleros is designed primarily for DApps, however, it is a decentralized and inexpensive arbitration system that could attract attention from outside of the blockchain industry.It is designed to be a multipurpose dispute resolution platform that can function as a legal adjudication service in many cases.

    What went into building Kleros?

    The project started in May 2017.We launched on the Ethereum mainnet on July 2018.I think we could have begun earlier, but we spent lots of time in the early stage of the project in recruiting.We were focused on building a really great team.

    What’s Kleros’ backstory?

    I hope this won’t sound arrogant, but I don’t think there’s a team in the world that has more expertise than we do in decentralized justice.Basically, we invented this concept.I became interested in this area initially because I saw lots of corruption in Argentina’s court system.So I asked: why is this happening? Because justice systems are built with 18th-century technology, what would a justice system look like if it were created with the technology we have now? And these technologies are blockchain and crowdsourcing.But it’s not only about corruption and Argentina.My research showed that the problem of justice inclusion is global.The internet age needs a dispute resolution system native to the age of the internet.

    What’s the return?

    I get the concept, but what’s the ROI for putting up a stake and being a juror? Seems like people are seeing issues with being verified so I’m just not clear on if it’s worth the risk to participate.

    What’s your business model?

    Our primary target market is DeFi, insurance, e-commerce, and content moderation (you can use Kleros to mediate disputes on whether a comment violates some community guidelines or whether some piece of content violates someone’s rights).

    Where can we go to learn more?

    We’re running a TCR (Token Curated List) bounty right now.You can earn PNK for submitting tokens to our list.

    Who Are the Founders of Kleros?

    Kleros (PNK) was founded by Federico Ast, Clément Lesaege and Nicolas Wagner.

    History of Kleros