Overview of Mercury
Mercury was heavily bombarded by comets and asteroids during and shortly following its formation 4.6 billion years ago, as well as during a possibly separate subsequent episode called the Late Heavy Bombardment that ended 3.8 billion years ago. Mercury received impacts over its entire surface during this period of intense crater formation, facilitated by the lack of any atmosphere to slow impactors down. During this time Mercury was volcanically active; basins were filled by magma, producing smooth plains similar to the maria found on the Moon. An unusual crater with radiating troughs has been discovered that scientists called “the spider”. It was later named Apollodorus.
Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer, a deeper liquid core layer, and a solid inner core. The planet’s density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm3, only slightly less than Earth’s density of 5.515 g/cm3. If the effect of gravitational compression were to be factored out from both planets, the materials of which Mercury is made would be denser than those of Earth, with an uncompressed density of 5.3 g/cm3 versus Earth’s 4.4 g/cm3. Mercury’s density can be used to infer details of its inner structure.
Mercury can come as near as 82,200,000 kilometres (0.549 astronomical units; 51.1 million miles) to Earth, and that is slowly declining: The next approach to within 82,100,000 km (51.0 million miles) is in 2679, and to within 82,000,000 km (51 million miles) in 4487, but it will not be closer to Earth than 80,000,000 km (50 million miles) until 28,622. Its period of retrograde motion as seen from Earth can vary from 8 to 15 days on either side of inferior conjunction.
Mercury is too small and hot for its gravity to retain any significant atmosphere over long periods of time; it does have a tenuous surface-bounded exosphere containing hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium, potassium and others at a surface pressure of less than approximately 0.5 nPa (0.005 picobars). This exosphere is not stable—atoms are continuously lost and replenished from a variety of sources.
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Mercury’s orbit’s inclined by 7 degrees to the plane of Earth’s orbit (the ecliptic), the largest of all eight known solar planets. As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between Earth and the Sun, which is in May or November.
Mercury has an orbital speed of 47.4 km/s (29.5 mi/s), whereas Earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km/s (18.5 mi/s). Therefore, the spacecraft must make a large change in velocity (delta-v) to get to Mercury and then enter orbit, as compared to the delta-v required for, say, Mars planetary missions.
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Mercury’s published articles, presentations, and industry briefs cover a wide range of fleet operations issues, including best management practices, chargeback practices, fleet rightsizing and utilization, outsourcing, policies and procedures, vehicle replacement, and more.
Mercury Gymnastics opened its doors in 1998 with the mission of providing a positive environment where young people can enhance their gymnastic, trampoline & tumbling, cheerleading skills and fitness in a safe and fun manner in our 25,000 square foot facility.
Dave Krabbenhoft discusses the history of his 28-year career at the USGS.He describes how he started working on mercury research in the 1980s, trying to unravel the mystery of why mercury was being detected in fish in pristine lakes in Northern Wisconsin, and how that research has evolved over time to determine atmospheric mercury is the primary source of mercury
Despite a lack of unequivocally volcanic characteristics, the localisation and rounded, lobate shape of these plains strongly support volcanic origins. All the smooth plains of Mercury formed significantly later than the Caloris basin, as evidenced by appreciably smaller crater densities than on the Caloris ejecta blanket.
Smooth plains are widespread flat areas that fill depressions of various sizes and bear a strong resemblance to the lunar maria.Unlike lunar maria, the smooth plains of Mercury have the same albedo as the older inter-crater plains.
Could water exist on Mercury?
Mass (Earth = 1)5.5271e-02
Equatorial radius (km)2,439.7
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1)3.8252e-01
Mean density (gm/cm^3)5.42
Mean distance from the Sun (km)57,910,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1)0.3871
Rotational period (days)58.6462
Orbital period (days)87.969
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec)47.88
Tilt of axis (degrees)0.00
Orbital inclination (degrees)7.004
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2)2.78
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec)4.25
Visual geometric albedo0.10
Did you know?
– From the surface of Mercury, the Sun would appear more than three times as large as it does when viewed from Earth, and the sunlight would be as much as seven times brighter.
How big is Mercury?
Mercury is slightly larger than our Moon – 15,329 kilometres around its equator.Its radius, the distance from the core’s centre to the surface, is 2,440 kilometres.Mercury is about 2.6 times smaller than Earth.
How far from the Sun is Mercury?
Mercury’s orbit is elongated, taking an almost oval- or egg-shaped course around the Sun.This means that its distance from the Sun varies throughout its circuit, between approximately 46 million and 70 million kilometres.
How hot is Mercury?
Mercury’s sun-facing side is scorched by temperatures of around 430°C, hot enough to melt lead.
How long is a day on Mercury?
Days on Mercury are very long because the planet rotates very slowly.One day-long spin lasts for 59 Earth days.But because of its fast orbit, one Mercury year takes 88 Earth days.This means that two years on Mercury lasts for only three days.
What does Mercury look like?
Here you can see that Mercury is a light grey color.
What Is “Mercury Retrograde”?
Three times a year, the planet Mercury appears to travel backward across the sky.We refer to these periods as times when Mercury is in apparent retrograde motion, or simply ”Mercury retrograde.” To those who practice astrology, these times in particular were traditionally associated with confusion, delay, and frustration.Think undelivered love letters, email blunders, and frazzled travel plans! This is an excellent time to reflect on the past, however, and it’s said that intuition is high during these periods.Coincidences can be extraordinary.
What is mercury poisoning?
Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that is in many everyday products, albeit in tiny amounts.While this limited exposure is usually considered safe, a buildup of mercury is highly dangerous.
What is Mercury’s atmosphere made of?
Mercury has little atmosphere, but what it does have is made up mostly of oxygen, sodium, hydrogen, helium and potassium.
Who discovered Mercury?
Mercury is one of the five classical planets visible with the naked eye and is named after the swift-footed Roman messenger god.It is not known exactly when the planet was first discovered – although it was first observed through telescopes in the seventeenth century by astronomers Galileo Galilei and Thomas Harriot.
History of Mercury
In 1759 Adam Braun and Mikhail Lomonosov working in St.
In 1772 and 1774, Swedish scientist Carl W.
In 2010, the Mercury Custom Shop was started as an additional avenue to bring new Mercury Products to the marketplace on a smaller scale and a way to introduce new ideas, these are all ‘Limited Editions’.
In 1631, Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.
In 1639, Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon.
In 1662 Robert Boyle performed a series of experiments employing a J-shaped glass tube, which was sealed on one end.
In 1800, Johann Schröter made observations of surface features, claiming to have observed 20-kilometre-high (12 mi) mountains.
In 1834, an American physician used activated charcoal to save the life of a patient who accidentally ingested mercury chloride.
In 1859, the French mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier reported that the slow precession of Mercury’s orbit around the Sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian mechanics and perturbations by the known planets.
In 1962, radio astronomers looked at radio emissions from
Mercury and determined that the dark side was too warm to be tidally locked.
In 1965, Pettengill and
Dyce determined Mercury’s period of rotation to be 59 +- 5 days based upon radar
In 1978, it established Siemens Communication Systems, which, in 1985, was reorganized into two divisions: Siemens Communication Systems for public network products, and Siemens Information Systems for PBX and computer-related products. Entering the globalization era of the 1990s, these two divisions made acquisitions.
In 1978, the city decided to replace them with more efficient sodium vapor lamps.
In 1986, J.
In 1989, the PBX division initiated a structured purchase of ROLM from IBM, renaming it ROLM Systems, and completed the purchase in 1992 as Siemens-ROLM Communications. The same year, the company acquired a 40% stake in GEC-Plessey Telecommunications (GPT) which evolved into the UK operations of the current company.
In 1991, the carrier networks division acquired Stromberg-Carlson from The Plessey Company plc. In 1996, the PBX businesses of Mercury Communications Ltd, a subsidiary of UK-based Cable & Wireless were also acquired.
In 1998, they concentrated more on DJing, although some remixes did see the light of day, including “I Think I’m in Love” from Spiritualized.
In 2000, high-resolution lucky imaging observations were conducted by the Mount Wilson Observatory 1.5 meter Hale telescope.
In 2010, Ford Motor Company announced it was discontinuing the Mercury brand to focus on Ford and Lincoln, which both sold in far greater numbers than Mercury.
In 2012, scientists discovered a group of meteorites in Morocco that they think could have originated from the planet Mercury.
In 2016, a rare transit of Mercury happened, where the planet crossed the face of the sun.
In 2016, scientists released the first-ever global digital-elevation model of Mercury, which combined more than 10,000 images acquired by MESSENGER to take viewers across the wide-open spaces of the tiny world.
In 2021, Mercury will be in apparent retrograde motion during the folowing ranges of dates: