Overview of Polybius

  • Polybius’ father, Lycortas, was a prominent, land-owning politician and member of the governing class who became strategos (commanding general) of the Achaean League.[7] Consequently, Polybius was able to observe first hand during his first 40 years the political and military affairs of Megalopolis, gaining experience as a statesman.[5] In his early years, he accompanied his father while travelling as ambassador.[8] He developed an interest in horse riding and hunting, diversions that later commended him to his Roman captors.
  • Polybius was an officer of the Achaean League, which sought by federating the Peloponnesus
    to make it strong enough to keep its independence against the Romans, but Rome was already
    too strong to be resisted, and arresting a thousand of the most influential members, sent
    them to Italy to await trial for conspiracy.
  • Polybius, like its namesake urban legend, definitely wants to create an air of mystery – in this case about how to get the best score – and by welcoming you with the words “do what comes naturally” and only giving you a few very basic pointers, it clearly wants you to work it out for itself.
  • Polybius’s work was widely referenced and employed by a variety of thinkers throughout history, including the Roman statesman and philosopher Cicero, the Renaissance writer Nicólo Machiavelli, and, most importantly, Charles‐​Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède–better known as Montesquieu.
  • Polybius stated emphatically “that all existing things are subject to decay and change is a truth that scarcely needs proof; for the course of nature is sufficient to force this conviction on us.” 5 According to Polybius, this maxim of nature can also be applied to political orders.
  • Polybius never uses the word “mixed.” Instead, he uses the words “composition,” “arrangement,” “balance” and “equilibrium.” Polybius’s ideal political order is not mixed like the ingredients in a cake are mixed into a single homogenous entity.
  • Polybius wrote that the first kings “were exempt from all vituperation or jealousy, as neither in their dress nor in their food did they make any great distinction, they lived very much like everyone else, not keeping apart from the people.” 11
  • Polybius, a historian from the Greek city of Megalopolis in Arcadia, was taken as a hostage to Rome after the Roman victory in the Third Macedonian War (171-168 BC), and there he began to write an account of the rise of Rome to a great power.
  • Polybius concludes the Romans are the pre-eminent power because they have customs and institutions which promote a deep desire for noble acts, a love of virtue, piety towards parents and elders, and a fear of the gods (deisidaimonia).
  • Polybius, a mysterious arcade game from the ’80s whose alleged existence in the Pacific Northwest is fueled by myth and an obsessive online fan base, and which may have factored in the abduction of two teenage boys.
  • Encryption

    Polybius square uses a 5×5 grid filled with letters for encryption.


    Polybius’ father, Lycortas, was a prominent advocate of neutrality during the Roman war against Perseus of Macedon.Lycortas attracted the suspicion of the Romans, and Polybius subsequently was one of the 1,000 Achaean nobles who were transported to Rome as hostages in 167 BC, and was detained there for 17 years.In Rome, by virtue of his high culture, Polybius was admitted to the most distinguished houses, in particular to that of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, the conqueror in the Third Macedonian War, who entrusted Polybius with the education of his sons, Fabius and Scipio Aemilianus (who had been adopted by the eldest son of Scipio Africanus).Polybius remained on cordial terms with his former pupil Scipio Aemilianus and was among the members of the Scipionic Circle.

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    What Is Polybius?

    The Polybius project, established by the Estonian company Polybius Foundation, is a digital crypto-project focused on creating a financial institution that utilizes blockchain technology.When it was launched, it was the first fully digital European bank to be crowdfunded by its users.

    Why is ancient Greece important?

    The political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific achievements of ancient Greek civilization formed a legacy with unparalleled influence on Western civilization.Greek political ideas have influenced modern forms of government, Greek pottery and sculpture have inspired artists for millennia, and Greek epic, lyric, and dramatic poetry is still read around the world.

    When did ancient Greece start and end?

    Ancient Greek civilization flourished from the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE.By that time, Greek cultural influence had spread around the Mediterranean and, through Alexander the Great’s campaign of conquest, as far afield as India.

    What is the Polybius Urban Legend?

    The mythos behind the game is that in 1981 the United States government actually commissioned — and put into production — an addictive video game.The arcade game had a similar game play to the classic game, Tempest.

    Does imperialism still exist today?

    Today the term imperialism is commonly used in international propaganda to denounce and discredit an opponent’s foreign policy.International organizations, including the United Nations, attempt to maintain peace using measures such as collective security arrangements and aid to developing countries.However, critics say imperialism exists today; for example, many in the Middle East saw the U.S.-led Iraq War as a new brand of anti-Arab and anti-Islamic imperialism.

    Why register for an account?

    The Journal of Roman Studies publishes papers in the full range
    of the field which the Roman Society was established to promote, i.e.’the
    study of the history, archaeology, literature and art of Italy and the Roman
    Empire, from the earliest times down to about A.D.700′.The emphasis is on
    historical themes, but there are also articles on literary, archaeological
    and art historical topics, including issues of cultural and intellectual history
    that cut across these categories.Papers are intended to make a fresh and significant
    contribution to the understanding of the Roman world and to stimulate further
    discussion.Articles primarily on the archaeology of Roman Britain are published
    in the Society’s sister journal, Britannia.The usual month of publication is November.The contents list and abstracts
    of the most recent volume are available on the Society’s web-page, as are
    the contents of the five preceding volumes.

    What About the Men in Black?

    There’s actually some truth to this one, too — and no, it’s not the awful Will Smith movies.

    What Was the Polybius Arcade Game?

    In 1981, in Portland, Oregon, a mysterious black arcade cabinet showed up.The mysterious game only showed up in Portland, a few surrounding suburbs.This game was supposedly published and created by a company called Sinnesloschen.

    What’s the Real Story Behind This Game?

    There are some pictures of Polybius arcade game cabinets, but they are just mock-ups.There’s no visual proof they existed.

    Who Was Cat DeSpira?

    This is where it gets interesting.DeSpira is a reporter, and not only grew up in Portland, but she spent a big part of her youth at the arcade where Polybius was supposedly released.

    Where was ancient Greece located?

    Ancient Greek civilization was concentrated in what is today Greece and along the western coast of Turkey.However, ancient Greek colonists established cities all around the Mediterranean and along the coast of the Black Sea.

    Did imperialism cause World War I?

    Following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, European nations sought to extend their economic and political power overseas, especially in Africa, in a period dubbed “the New Imperialism.” This competition led European elites and the broad literate classes to believe that the old European balance of power was over and a new world order was dawning.Some scholars argue that this process intensified imperial rivalries and helped provoke World War I.

    What is imperialism in history?

    Imperialism is the state policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other territories and peoples.Because it always involves the use of power, whether military or economic or some subtler form, imperialism has often been considered morally reprehensible.Examples from history include Greek imperialism under Alexander the Great and Italian imperialism under Benito Mussolini.

    Is ancient Greece a country?

    No, ancient Greece was a civilization.The Greeks had cultural traits, a religion, and a language in common, though they spoke many dialects.The basic political unit was the city-state.Conflict between city-states was common, but they were capable of banding together against a common enemy, as they did during the Persian Wars (492–449 BCE).Powerful city-states such as Athens and Sparta exerted influence beyond their borders but never controlled the entire Greek-speaking world.

    Was ancient Greece a democracy?

    Each ancient Greek city-state had its own government.Common forms of government included tyranny and oligarchy.In 507 BCE, under the leadership of Cleisthenes, the citizens of Athens began to develop a system of popular rule that they called democracy, which would last nearly two centuries.In their governing body, the Assembly (Ecclesia), all adult male citizens, perhaps 10 to 15 percent of the total population, were eligible to vote.

    Who Was Stephen Steven Roach?

    Any stories behind Polybius were kept pretty quiet.They were limited to the Portland/Oregon area, and it was pretty difficult for kids to spread information at all back then.

    History of Polybius

  • In 1981, an arcade in the Portland, Oregon area was the scene of countless gamers coming down with migraines, heart attacks, addiction, seizures, strokes, and even amnesia, all due to one game cabinet: Polybius.
  • In 2006 a man going by the name of Steven Roach posted on the CoinOp forums, where Polybius was first mentioned, offering a detailed story about how he was commissioned by a South American company to build a video game.
  • In 2006, a man named Steven Roach came forward claiming that he was one of the game’s programmers.
  • In 2007 a game was released claiming to be the closest approximation of what Polybius would be like, based on descriptions of it mentioned in the legend.