Overview of Proton

  • ProtonMail Contacts also utilizes digital signatures to verify the integrity of contacts data.[25] On 6 December 2017, ProtonMail launched ProtonMail Bridge, an application that provides end-to-end email encryption to any desktop client that supports IMAP and SMTP, which include Microsoft Outlook, Mozilla Thunderbird, and Apple Mail, for Windows and MacOS.[26]
  • ProtonMail currently supports two-factor authentication with TOTP tokens for its login process.[58] As of October 2019, according to official ProtonMail blog, U2F support for YubiKey and FIDO physical security keys is currently under development and will be available soon after the release of v4.0.[59]
  • Proton aims to provide a secure, verified identity account which is integrated with a financial settlements layer that allows users to directly link this identity with fiat accounts, pull funds and buy crypto, and use that crypto seamlessly in apps, all without sending any of the user’s private, sensitive information.
  • Proton emission can occur from high-lying excited states in a nucleus following a beta decay, in which case the process is known as beta-delayed proton emission, or can occur from the ground state (or a low-lying ia fewr) of very proton-rich nuclei, in which case the process is very similar to alpha decay.
  • Proton-K payloads included all of the Soviet Union’s Salyut space stations, almost all Mir modules (with the exception of the Docking Module, which was launched on the United States Space Shuttle), and the Zarya and Zvezda modules of the International Space Station.
  • Proton flew its last scheduled commercial mission on 9 October 2019, delivering Eutelsat 5 West B and Mission Extension Vehicle-1 to geostationary orbit.[19] A number of Roscosmos and other Russian government missions remain on Proton launch manifest.
  • Proton’s design was kept secret until 1986, with the public being only shown the upper stages in film clips and photographs, and the first time the complete vehicle was shown to the outside world happened during the televised launch of Mir.
  • A proton is built from three valence quarks (two up quarks and one down quark), virtual gluons, and virtual (or sea) quarks and antiquarks (virtual particles do not influence the proton’s quantum numbers).
  • Proton, stable subatomic particle that has a positive charge equal in magnitude to a unit of electron charge and a rest mass of 1.67262 × 10−27 kg, which is 1,836 times the mass of an electron.
  • Proton Motor Power Systems PLC, formerly Proton Power Systems PLC, designs, develops, manufactures and tests fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid systems, as well as the related technical components.
  • Blockchain

    Proton enables smart contract and blockchain developers to connect their decentralized applications with any open APIs via a customizable Data Oracle Script, which is programmable in any language compatible with the WebAssembly standard.


    The Proton community determines through a stake voting process who supplied the right solution and who will be rewarded with the stake in question.Data analysts verify the submitted code through a staking mechanism.


    Proton removes the concept of sharing private keys directly with merchants by creating a permission-less layer that exists on top of traditional card networks and banks.Launched in San Francisco, Proton (XPR) is a new public blockchain and smart contract platform designed for both consumer applications and peer-peer payments.


    Financial regulation and taxation authorities depend on reliable market data for solid decision-making and will be served optimally by the Proton platform.


    Proton Web SDK The Proton Web SDK is built off of Greymass’s Anchor-link and the…To encourage the continued progress of the Proton blockchain, and support developers who are actively building with Proton, we have released our Web SDK along with documentation.


    This work is a joint effort of the Metal team, the newly acquired…Metal, the creator of the popular Metal Pay wallet, MTL token, Metal X exchange, and Proton blockchain announced today a set of  DeFi tools on Proton allowing for lightning-fast, feeless transactions.

    How Can a Proton Create a Neutron?

    First, refer to the model of the neutron from the neutron page.It contains an additional electron in the center of the nucleon, creating a neutral charge as the center positron and center electron annihilate.A neutron can also be an empty shell of a nucleon without the electron-positron particles in the center.

    How Can Electrons Be Quarks?

    Electrons repel each other due to constructive wave interference of traveling waves, consistent with Law #4 of the Theory Laws.But also consistent with the same law is that when electrons have sufficient energy to be pushed inside of their standing wave structures, a standing wave node is stable as it is the point of minimal amplitude.The kinetic energy gain is stored energy and the electron now appears like a quark.

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    How is MPTC Different?

    There are a limited number of proton therapy centers in the United States and our center is the first in the Baltimore/Washington region.MPTC features the most cutting-edge proton therapy technology available and is delivered by the nationally-recognized radiation oncologists from the University of Maryland.

    How do I set up royalty rates?

    As the label manager you control the royalty rates for every track on every release, including any expenses that you need to recoup before artists get paid.With SoundSystem you can easily set royalty rates for each song before sending out contracts.Assign royalties to yourself, your original and remix artists, and even graphic designers and mastering engineers.Royalties work on a track level so you can enter different royalty rates for every track on your release.If the artist is a group or a band then each member will receive a contract and an equal share of the royalties you enter for them.

    What are the advantages of proton therapy?

    Dr.Steven J.Frank discusses the advantages of proton therapy
    compared to other treatment options.


    Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, February 15, 1996.

    Voltage-Gated Proton Channels?


    How does proton therapy work?

    The best way to understand how proton therapy works is to take a look at the physics and engineering inside the proton accelerator, or the synchrotron, and the beam delivery system.

    Interested in making privacy the default online?

    We are looking for talented individuals interested in building a more secure and private internet.

    How is MPTC Different?

    There are a limited number of proton therapy centers in the United States and our center is the first in the Baltimore/Washington region.MPTC features the most cutting-edge proton therapy technology available and is delivered by the nationally-recognized radiation oncologists from the University of Maryland.

    What is a Proton?

    A proton is one of three main particles that make up the atom.The other two particles are the neutron and electron.Protons are found in the nucleus of the atom.This is a tiny, dense region at the center of the atom.Protons have a positive electrical charge of one \(\left( +1 \right)\) and a mass of 1 atomic mass unit \(\left( \text{amu} \right)\), which is about \(1.67 \times 10^{-27}\) kilograms.Together with neutrons, they make up virtually all of the mass of an atom.

    Is Proton Therapy Right For You?

    Every person’s cancer is unique.That is why, after your diagnosis, our specialists at McLaren provide you with all of the necessary information to help you decide if proton therapy is appropriate for your treatment.Standard cancer treatment options for patients include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.While all of these options may offer varying levels of benefit for a cancer patient, proton radiation therapy is often considered more effective against localized cancers.

    Do I have to send payments and statements myself?

    Nope! It’s all automatic.SoundSystem generates statements for artists and label managers every quarter.Anyone with a balance over $100 gets a statement via email.Anyone with a balance over $100 gets a payment via PayPal.If PayPal is not available for someone, then Proton can make a payment via Western Union or Transfer Wise.Royalty statements are available at any time to users on the SoundSystem website.

    How often do I need to release music? How much do I need to sell?

    You can release music once a week or once a decade.There are no sales or schedule requirements for labels running on SoundSystem.

    How Can a Neutron Create a Proton?

    In the reverse process of electron capture, the beta minus decay process requires energy to dislodge the center electron from the neutron.A neutron in an atomic nucleus has additional forces holding it in place, so it takes more energy than a free neutron which decays in about 15 minutes (based on the probability of a solar neutrino strike).As the neutron becomes a proton, the electron and neutrino are ejected, matching experiments.

    Is Proton Therapy
    Right for You?

    Proton therapy is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of localized, solid tumors in adults and children.Consultations are now available at MPTC.

    How much does Proton cost for my label?

    There are no upfront or recurring fees.Proton simply earns a 30% commission of your label’s revenue.The remaining 70% of the label’s earnings go to the label itself and the artists, based on royalty percentages controlled by the label on each track.

    Is dealing with contracts hard and complicated?

    Not at all.You can automatically generate contracts for your label using the website and easily send them to your artists via email, who can then approve them digitally without any hassle.

    Is Proton Therapy
    Right for You?

    Proton therapy is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of localized, solid tumors in adults and children.Consultations are now available at MPTC.

    Is selling at Beatport better with Proton?

    Yes.Proton helps you maximize your earnings from Beatport.You’ll earn the highest possible payout from Beatport by collecting your mechanical royalties and earning extra as an exclusive label, if you want to.For details, please contact us for more info.

    How is MPTC Different?

    There are a limited number of proton therapy centers in the United States and our center is the first in the Baltimore/Washington region.MPTC features the most cutting-edge proton therapy technology available and is delivered by the nationally-recognized radiation oncologists from the University of Maryland.

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    What Is Proton Therapy?

    Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy designed to kill cancer cells.It involves the use of charged particles called protons rather than the x-rays that are used in conventional radiation therapy.As part of the treatment, also called proton beam therapy, doctors direct cancer-fighting energy to precise locations within the body.

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    What is Proton SoundSystem?

    Proton SoundSystem powers over 2K independent electronic music labels.Beyond distro, our platform helps our labels manage and promote their releases, save time, and grow in a reliable, sustainable and innovative way.We offer a range of exclusive services and features that are simply not available together anywhere else.

    What is Proton Therapy?

    Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy treatment that uses protons, equivalent to positively charged hydrogen nuclei, to target a tumor in a very precise way.Unlike conventional x-ray (or photon) therapy, proton beams have the unique property of stopping at a certain depth in tissue.This special property of proton beams can be put to use and controlled to focus on a specific area of target in the treatment of cancer patients.Proton therapy is the latest addition to the wide variety of comprehensive radiotherapy services that are available to patients at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

    How much control do I have over my label?

    You have complete control and total creative freedom.You can sign any tracks you want and organize releases however you’d like, as long as any samples used are legally cleared.

    What makes proton therapy so precise?

    Cancer specialists at the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center use
    proton therapy to precisely target and match treatment to the shape of
    a tumor with incredible accuracy.This allows a higher dose of
    radiation to be delivered directly to where it needs to be – to the
    cancerous cells – while sparing healthy tissues and critical areas of
    the body that are near the tumor.

    What are the benefits of proton therapy?

    Both regular and proton radiation therapy damage the DNA of cancer cells,
    but proton therapy has two main advantages: more energy focused on the
    tumor, and less radiation affecting healthy tissue nearby.

    What Is Proton Therapy?

    Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that uses high-energy radiation beams to destroy cancer cells.With protons (positively charged atoms) as the energy source, proton therapy offers greater precision and accuracy than conventional radiation therapy using X-rays.Learn more about proton therapy, and get answers to FAQs about proton therapy.

    What are VitalSource eBooks?

    Routledge & CRC Press eBooks are available through VitalSource.The free VitalSource Bookshelf® application allows you to access to your eBooks whenever and wherever you choose.

    What’s a Proton, Anyway?

    The Large Hadron Collider is mainly a machine for smashing protons into each other.

    What are Protons Made of?

    Protons are made of fundamental particles called quarks and gluons.As you can see in the figure below, a proton contains three quarks (colored circles) and three streams of gluons (wavy black lines).Two of the quarks are called up quarks (u), and the third quark is called a down quark (d).The gluons carry the strong nuclear force between the quarks, binding them together.This force is needed to overcome the electric force of repulsion between positive protons.Although protons were discovered almost 100 years ago, the quarks and gluons inside them were discovered much more recently.Scientists are still learning more about these fundamental particles.

    What’s Really Inside A Proton?

    The three valence quarks of a proton contribute to its spin, but so do the gluons, sea quarks and …[+] antiquarks, and orbital angular momentum as well.The electrostatic repulsion and the attractive strong nuclear force, in tandem, are what give the proton its size, and the properties of quark mixing are required to explain the suite of free and composite particles in our Universe.Individual protons, overall, behave as fermions, not as bosons.

    Is Proton Therapy
    Right for You?

    Proton therapy is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of localized, solid tumors in adults and children.Consultations are now available at MPTC.

    Why pay for ProtonMail?

    ProtonMail is the world’s largest secure email service with millions of users, and the service requires extensive infrastructure and expertise to run.Our mandate from the community is to provide the highest level of security and privacy, with the cost considerations secondary.

    Who can benefit from proton therapy?

    Virtually all doctors who specialize in radiation therapy agree that the most critical use of this technology is in treating children.Children are more prone to secondary cancers than adults.The risk of secondary cancers is correlated with the amount of irradiated tissue; since proton therapy is more efficient in sparing normal tissue, it reduces the likelihood of these follow-on cancers occurring in later years.Studies show that using proton therapy to treat certain pediatric tumors provides excellent results.

    What is Proton Therapy?

    Proton therapy is a form of radiation treatment that delivers an exact, high dose of radiation to a tumor site while sparing surrounding healthy tissue and organs from damage.

    What makes proton radiation different?

    Proton radiation can be directed to reach only the areas of the body that are affected by cancer.This leads to more accurate therapy, with less risk that healthy tissue will be exposed to radiation – and this can reduce the risk of complications and side effects.

    Video – What’s in a Proton?

    The What’s in a Proton video below provides an explanation of the pentaquark structure of the proton and how it matches particle accelerator experiments and beta decay results.

    What is it like to get proton therapy?

    Proton therapy is an outpatient procedure.Most patients are treated over a course of several sessions, and some treatments take longer than others.Currently, the proton beam is only available in a few specialized centers.

    What makes Proton better than other distributors?

    There are a lot of distributors out there, but there are none like Proton.

    What are the disadvantages of proton therapy?

    Proton therapy is not appropriate for every type of cancer.It is best
    suited for cancers in sensitive areas, where other treatments might damage
    surrounding healthy cells.

    What is Proton Therapy?

    Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy, is a type of radiation treatment that uses a beam of protons to deliver radiation directly to the tumor.

    What is proton therapy?

    Proton therapy, also known as proton beam therapy, is a form of radiation treatment used to destroy tumor cells.Instead of using x-rays like regular radiation treatment, it uses protons to sends beams of high energy that can target tumors more precisely than X-ray radiation.

    Who owns the tracks?

    For a variety of reasons, the tracks on your label would be signed and owned by Proton LLC for the duration of our agreement together.This enables Proton to earn 10% extra for your label at Beatport.Tracks are technically signed to Proton but appear on your label on every store and service.Internally, we consider the tracks mutually owned according to the royalty rates you determine for each track.

    What if I want to leave SoundSystem?

    Unlike other distributors, Proton does not lock labels into contracts.You can leave at any time! We believe in providing the best service possible, so you’d never want to leave in the first place.Other distributors lock labels into 1 year or 3 year contracts, but Proton labels stay with us because they love us, not because they’re forced to.

    Why Do Particle Accelerator Experiments Show Protons as Quarks?

    Quarks are never isolated (quark confinement) so it is impossible to really determine the structure of a quark.Instead, they are assumed to be fundamental particles with high-energy gluons binding the quarks together using the strong force.As it was shown in the strong force section, the fine structure constant (associated with strong force) can be derived from the electron’s properties.Under the laws of energy wave theory, electrons will not repel if they are pushed together to be within standing waves and placed at nodes (where amplitude is zero).The kinetic energy to push the electrons to this point and is transferred to stored energy (gluon).This energy is difficult to break and electrons are never separated, appearing as high-energy particles that do not look like electrons in experiments.

    What is the Shape of a Proton?

    A marble, a peanut, a donut—or all of the above? Go inside physicists' quest to understand the nature of the proton.

    Which tumors might be treated with proton therapy?

    Proton therapy is used to treat cancerous and non-cancerous tumors in
    children and adults.It can be especially valuable when addressing brain
    and spinal cord tumors in children, who often suffer lasting side effects
    from toxic cancer treatments.

    History of Proton

  • In 1947 during a study of cosmic ray interactions, a product of a proton collision with a nucleus was found to live for a much longer time than expected: 10-10 seconds instead of the expected 10-23 seconds!
  • In 1974 a meson called the J/Psi particle was discovered by experimenters at Stanford (Richter) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (Ting).
  • In 1932, Carl Anderson discovered the positron while measuring cosmic rays in a Wilson chamber
  • In 1815, based on the tables of atomic weights available at the time, he anonymously hypothesized that the atomic weight of every element is an integer multiple of that of hydrogen, suggesting that the hydrogen atom is the only truly fundamental particle (which he called protyle[6]), and that the atoms of the other elements are made of groupings of various numbers of hydrogen atoms.
  • In 1919 Rutherford had discovered the proton, a positively charged particle within the atom’s nucleus.
  • In 1920 Rutherford gave a Bakerian lecture at the Royal Society entitled the “Nuclear Constitution of Atoms”, a summary of recent experiments on atomic nuclei and conclusions as to the structure of atomic nuclei.[30][8]:23[5]:5 By 1920, the existence of electrons within the atomic nucleus was widely assumed.
  • In 1920, Rutherford suggested that the nucleus consisted of positive protons and neutrally charged particles, suggested to be a proton and an electron bound in some way.[18] Electrons were assumed to reside within the nucleus because it was known that beta radiation consisted of electrons emitted from the nucleus.[18] Rutherford called these uncharged particles neutrons, by the Latin root for neutralis (neuter) and the Greek suffix -on (a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles, i.e.
  • In 1925, the concept of spin had allowed physicists to explain the Zeeman effect, but it also created unexplained anomalies.
  • In 1928, British physicist Paul Dirac set out
    to solve a problem: how to reconcile the laws of quantum
    theory with Einstein’s special theory of relativity.
  • In 1930 Walther Bothe and H.
  • In 1930, Paul Dirac developed a description of the electron, which also predicted that an antiparticle of the electron should exist.
  • In 1931, Walther Bothe and Herbert Becker found that if alpha particle radiation from polonium fell on beryllium, boron, or lithium, an unusually penetrating radiation was produced.
  • In 1932 anti-electrons (positrons) were found in cosmic ray debris by Carl Anderson.
  • In 1932, Chadwick proposed that the neutral particle was Rutherford’s neutron.
  • In 1932, they bombarded lithium with protons, causing their nuclei to split and producing two alpha particles.
  • In 1936, with Seth Neddermeyer, Anderson also discovered the positive and negative "mesotron", now called the muon.
  • In 1938 Fermi received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”.[88][89]
  • In 1955 a team of physicists led by Owen Chamberlain and Emilio Segrè observed that antiprotons are produced by high-energy collisions.
  • In 1955 at the Berkeley Bevatron, Emilio Segre, Owen Chamberlain, Clyde Wiegand and
    Thomas Ypsilantis discovered the antiproton.
  • In 1961 two physicists, Murray Gell-Mann of the United States and Yuval Neʾeman of Israel, proposed a particle classification scheme called the Eightfold Way, based on the mathematical symmetry group SU(3), which described strongly interacting particles in terms of building blocks.
  • In 1961, Gell-Mann[7] and Yuval Ne’eman[8] independently proposed a hadron classification scheme called the Eightfold Way, also known as SU(3) flavor symmetry.
  • In 1964 Gell-Mann introduced the concept of quarks as a physical basis for the scheme, having adopted the fanciful term from a passage in James Joyce’s novel Finnegans Wake.
  • In 1964, Gell-Mann[4] and George Zweig[5][6] (independently of each other) proposed the quark model, then consisting only of up, down, and strange quarks.[7] However, while the quark model explained the Eightfold Way, no direct evidence of the existence of quarks was found until 1968 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.[8][9] Deep inelastic scattering experiments indicated that protons had substructure, and that protons made of three more-fundamental particles explained the data (thus confirming the quark model).[10]
  • In 1964, Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig independently proposed what became known as the quark model — the idea that protons, neutrons and related rarer particles are bundles of three quarks (as Gell-Mann dubbed them), while pions and other mesons are made of one quark and one antiquark.
  • In 1965, a group of researchers led by Antonino Zichichi reported production of nuclei of antideuterium at the Proton Synchrotron at CERN.[53] At roughly the same time, observations of antideuterium nuclei were reported by a group of American physicists at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory.[54]
  • In 1965, after barely reaching launch pad, UR-500 was tasked with launching two cosmonauts on a trip around the Moon aboard the L1 spacecraft.
  • In 1968, scientists first produced anti-atoms, and in 1995, near Geneva, Switzerland, physicists created antihydrogen atoms that lasted long enough for scientists to study their behavior.
  • In 1973 a Berkeley cosmic ray expirement was lofted above most of the scattering atmosphere in a high altitude balloon.
  • In 1975, after two years of study, a very heavy track bearing the stigmata of a monopole was noted in the lexan sheets that served as three dimensional detecting film.
  • In 1995 physicists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva created the first antiatom, the antimatter counterpart of an ordinary atom—in this case, antihydrogen, the simplest antiatom, consisting of a positron in orbit around an antiproton nucleus.
  • In 1995, CERN announced that it had successfully brought into existence nine hot antihydrogen atoms by implementing the SLAC/Fermilab concept during the PS210 experiment.
  • In 1999, CERN activated the Antiproton Decelerator, a device capable of decelerating antiprotons from 3500 MeV to 5.3 MeV – still too “hot” to produce study-effective antihydrogen, but a huge leap forward.
  • In 2002, clouds of anti-hydrogen were made by delicately corralling anti-electrons and antiprotons together in a magnetic trap, in almost perfect vacuum conditions.
  • In 2002, the simultaneous emission of two protons was observed from the nucleus iron-45 in experiments at GSI and GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds at Caen).
  • In 2005 it was experimentally determined (at the same facility) that zinc-54 can also undergo double proton decay.
  • In 2010 physicists using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, used a billion collisions between gold ions to create 18 instances of the heaviest antiatom, the nucleus of antihelium-4, which consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons.
  • In 2010, Pohl et al.
  • In 2011, CERN scientists were able to preserve antihydrogen for approximately 17 minutes.[74] The record for storing antiparticles is currently held by the TRAP experiment at CERN: antiprotons were kept in a Penning trap for 405 days.[75] A proposal was made in 2018, to develop containment technology advanced enough to contain a billion anti-protons in a portable device to be driven to another lab for further experimentation.[76]
  • In 2011, scientists were able to hold produced antihydrogen for over 15 minutes using this method.
  • In 2011, the STAR detector reported the observation of artificially created antihelium-4 nuclei (anti-alpha particles) (4He) from such collisions.[70]
  • In 2016 a new antiproton decelerator and cooler called ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton decelerator) was built.
  • In 2017, ProtonMail had over 2 million users,[11] and grew to over 5 million by September 2018,[12] 20 million by the end of 2019,[13] and over 50 million in 2021.[14]
  • On 2 July 2013, a Proton-M/DM-03 launched from Site 81/24 carrying three GLONASS navigation satellites.
  • On 6 August 2012, the Russian Federal Space Agency lost a Russian and an Indonesian communications satellite in an attempt to launch them into orbit on a Proton-M due to technical difficulties with the last stage.[23] On 2 July 2013, a Proton-M launching three GLONASS navigation satellites experienced a failure reminiscent of the 1960s disasters shortly after liftoff when the booster crashed near LC-39 at Baikonour, ending a 30-year unbroken stretch without a first stage failure; all future Proton flights were suspended pending investigation.[24] The accident was eventually determined to be caused by the rate gyro package having been installed upside-down.