Overview of VX

  • VX is an odorless and tasteless chiral organophosphorous chemical with a molecular weight of 267.37 g/mol.[citation needed] Under standard conditions it’s an amber-colored liquid with a boiling point of 298 °C (568 °F), and a freezing point of −51 °C (−60 °F).[11] Its density is similar to that of water.[12] It has a log P value of 2.047, meaning it’s relatively hydrophobic with an about 100-fold more partitioning into octanol, over water.[13] Its low vapor pressure of 0.09 pascals (1.3×10−5 psi) gives it a low volatility, resulting in a high persistence in the environment.[14]
  • VX is considered an area denial weapon due to these physical and biochemical characteristics.[8] As a chemical weapon, it’s categorized as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations and is banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993,[9] where production and stockpiling of VX exceeding 100 grams (3.53 oz) per year is outlawed.
  • VX, short for “venomous agent X”,[6] is one of the best known of the V nerve agents and was first discovered at Porton Down in England during the early 1950s based on research first done by Gerhard Schrader, a chemist working for IG Farben in Germany during the 1930s.
  • VX is also considerably more persistent in the environment than other poisonous gasses, which is one of the reasons it has rarely been used in military conflicts. it’s too dangerous to use near friendly soldiers and can kill people even weeks after a battle is over.
  • vx Observe energy uses an automated system that integrates utility bills, energy bills and meter data to show equipment performance anomalies, ensure correct pricing, and help users gain key visibility to fix problems before the bill comes.
  • VX has a very high “on-rate” to react with the target enzyme and form a stable P-O-C bond (phosphorylation).[17] However, compared with other highly toxic nerve agents like soman or sarin, VX undergoes relatively slow “aging”.
  • VX-LLC will advertise equipment worldwide through our international customer database paired with the most recent media marketing tools to guarantee immediate exposure to the global market of equipment buyers.
  • VX has been used for assassination before, notably by the Japanese terrorist group Aum Shinrikyo, which made a small quantity and spritzed it onto the skin of victims using syringes.
  • VX could be used to make airfields and ports contaminated, and could contaminate large amounts of military equipment, which include pre-positioned stockpiles of armoured vehicles (e.g.
  • VX includes Smart AGC coupled with our famous three-band adaptive Digital Dynamic EQ, a three-band adaptive spectral processor, and noise gating.
  • Network

    Defence analyst Lee Il-Woo at the private Korea Defence Network told AFP it "is believed to have a large stockpile of VX, which can easily be manufactured at low cost".


    A lengthy discussion of treatment of nerve agents is found in Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare available online.Decontamination is the systematic removal and/or neutralisation of any VX on the body.Drug therapy typically includes atropine (to inhibit excess acetylcholine), an oxime – 2-PAM chloride is one in current use (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase that is bound to VX molecules), and anticonvulsants, such as Valium, to control convulsions and spasms.Soapy water isn’t bad for this in the lack of a more sophisticated decontaminant.Supportive care includes making sure that the airway is kept clear, and that breathing and circulation are maintained.Treatment of someone exposed to VX requires both general supportive care, decontamination, and specific drug interventions.

    Are there any antidotes?

    Injections of atropine, if administered quickly after exposure, can counteract the lethal effects of VX.The drug counteracts VX’s effects on a neurotransmitter, while another drug, pralidoxime, counteracts enzyme-related effects, allowing cells to resume functioning normally.Hospitals generally have atropine on hand; it is commonly used in much less drastic situations, like dilating pupils for eye exams.Anticonvulsive drugs like diazepam may also be administered.Military forces are often equipped with autoinjectors, which can be removed from a wrapper and used directly through clothing or protective gear in the event of an attack.

    But why?

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    Could terrorists use VX?

    It’s unlikely but possible.Synthesizing VX is complicated and extremely dangerous.It requires the use of toxic and corrosive chemicals and a sophisticated chemical laboratory.Still, the Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo, which recruited trained chemists from Japanese universities, managed to synthesize small quantities of VX to use for assassinations.Terrorists lacking access to trained organic chemists might be more likely to steal a munition containing VX from a poorly guarded chemical weapons depot.Breachable depots may exist in Russia.

    Do any countries have VX?

    The only countries that have admitted to having VX or a closely related agent are the United States and Russia.(The United States has destroyed about 9 percent of its VX stockpile, and Russia has promised to eliminate its own supply of a VX-like agent.) Experts say Iraq successfully weaponized VX sometime in the late 1980s.There were reports that Syria successfully produced VX or a similar agent and tested missile warheads armed with VX.

    Does al-Qaeda have VX?

    There is no evidence that it does.It is also extremely unlikely that Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network has the technical capability to produce VX, although it might try to purchase or steal munitions containing VX.

    Does North Korea produce VX?

    North Korea – along with Egypt and South Sudan – has neither signed nor ratified the CWC.

    Has VX been used before?

    Only Russia and the US have admitted owning VX stockpiles, but other countries are believed to have it.

    Has VX been used before?

    Not in combat.In 1994 and 1995, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo used homemade VX to poison three people, one of whom died.

    Has VX ever been used?

    Although there is no conclusive evidence, some experts and an Iraqi defector say that Saddam Hussein used VX against Iranian forces in the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War, and then again in a 1988 chemical attack on Iraqi Kurds in the town of Halabja.That massacre reportedly killed 5,000 people and created serious health problems for thousands more.

    How Can We Help?

    VX-LLC has been in the business of buying and selling used processing equipment for the steel, aluminum, copper, and brass industries for over fifty years.If you’re in the market for quality used metalworking machinery that will allow you to reduce costs and boost production capabilities at the same time, you should go with the company that’s been in the business since 1965.

    How detectable is VX?

    In its purest form, VX is colorless, tasteless and odorless.But production often introduces small impurities, turning it light yellow or amber.It is slightly oily to the touch and is considered not very volatile, meaning it does not evaporate quickly.Its chemical makeup is easily detectable through testing, but if medical personnel are not expecting to encounter it, that testing may not occur.

    How do you make VX?

    Very carefully.Many of the individual ingredients — sulfur, for instance — are easy to come by.Others, like hydrochloric acid gas, may require some hunting.Obtaining all of them would most likely draw the attention of some high-ranking law enforcement officials.Making VX is, essentially, a matter of having the right ingredients; gear like flasks, distillation equipment and aspirators; and a desire to manufacture something deadly enough to kill you with a single misplaced drop.

    How does it kill you?

    The VX molecule interferes with the way glands and muscles function by blocking an enzyme that allows them to relax.That causes muscles to clench uncontrollably and, eventually, prevents a victim from being able to breathe.The lethal dose for VX ranges from about 10 milligrams via skin contact to 25 to 30 milligrams if inhaled.Early symptoms can include pinprick pupils, runny nose, wheezing and muscle twitching.Death can occur anywhere from within a few minutes to hours, depending on the dose and the method of contact.

    How does it work?

    VX can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or contact with the eyes.It works by penetrating the skin and disrupting the transmission of nerve impulses.


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    VX nerve agent: What is it, where did it come from and what does it do to you?

    Listed by the UN as a weapon of mass destruction, less than a drop of the highly toxic nerve gas can kill.

    What are the effects of exposure?

    The symptoms are similar to pesticide poisoning, and start immediately after exposure.

    What are you interested in?

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    What is a nerve agent?

    A nerve agent, sometimes called nerve gas, acts on the nervous system of an organism and prevents muscles from functioning properly.The substance is derived from organophosphate pesticides, and military officials had envisioned dispersing it over a wide area — using a specialized artillery shell or bomb, for instance — to kill or incapacitate enemy forces and make the affected area impossible to safely move through.

    What is VX?

    The clear, amber-coloured, oily liquid is tasteless and odourless, making it hard to detect.It is the most toxic of all known chemical warfare agents – about 100 times more potent than sarin.

    What is VX?

    VX is the deadliest nerve agent ever created.Known by its U.S.Army code name, it is a clear, colorless liquid with the consistency of motor oil.A fraction of a drop of VX, absorbed through the skin, can fatally disrupt the nervous system.Although a cocktail of drugs can serve as an antidote, VX acts so quickly that victims would have to be injected with the antidote almost immediately to have a chance at survival.VX is the only significant nerve agent created since World War II.

    When was VX created?

    In the early 1950s.A British industrial scientist developed the basic compound of the V-series of nerve agents in the course of researching pesticides (the “V” stands for “venom”), but the new compound was deemed too deadly for commercial use.In the late 1950s, the British government shared the formula with the United States, which began full-scale production of VX in 1961.Between 1964 and 1968, the U.S.Department of Defense conducted a series of “live-agent tests” designed to give it practice defending ships against VX and sarin attacks.

    History of VX

  • In 1954, ICI put one of them on the market under the trade name Amiton.
  • In 1969, 23 soldiers and one civilian were sent to hospital after the VX nerve agent stored in a US military base in Okinawa, Japan, leaked.
  • In 1969, the U.S.
  • In 1986 Ed became the District Sales Manager for Roland Corp.
  • In 1988, a United Nations inquiry established that Cuba was responsible for deploying VX against Angolan insurgents during the Angolan Civil War.[36][37] UN toxicologists obtained trace elements of VX from soil, water, and plant samples taken from areas where Cuban troops had recently carried out counter-insurgency operations.[36] Patients demonstrating symptoms of exposure to nerve agents first began appearing in Angolan hospitals around 1984.[38]
  • in 1998 acting on information that it produced VX and that the origin of the agent was associated with both Iraq and Al Qaeda.[40] The U.S.
  • In 2009, DeBurger served as the NAS Lemoore Ceremonial Director Navy Region Southwest, and the Chief Master at Arms for NAS Lemoore.
  • In the 1950s, chemist Ranajit Gosh discovered VX while researching organophosphate compounds for use as pesticides at a laboratory of the Imperial Chemical Industries in Great Britain.
  • In the 1960s, testing of a nerve agent that may have been VX led to the accidental deaths of thousands of sheep in Utah.